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Monday, December 15, 2014

SIGNS IN MEDICINE ::

1. Aaron’s sign :: seen in appendicitis. On firm pressure over the McBurney’s point the patient with appendicitis will feel distress in the epigastrium or precordial region.

2. Ball’s sign- is seen in fetal death .There will be hyperflexion of the spine.

3. Banana sign –the frontal lobes will be concave .This is due to neural tube defects

4. Chvostek’s sign -The facial nerve is tapped at its exit from the stylomastoid foramen. This leads to brief twitching of the facial muscles, ala of the nose and the blinking of the eyelids. .Elevation of the corner of mouth may b e seen.

5. Comby’s sign-is seen in measles. In early stages thin whitish patches are seen on the gums and buccal mucous membranes.

6. Cullen sign-A bluish discoloration seen around the umbilicus in patients with acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis.

7. Dance sign- in intussusception. The right lower quadrant may feel empty to palpation in intussusception.

8. Dimple sign- Cart-Wheel pattern of fibroblast seen in Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.

9. Faget’s sign- is seen in yellow fever. Relative bradycardia is present from the second day of the illness.

10. Flag sign- Flag sign may be seen in Kwashiorkor. The hair will be alternately normal and depigmented. The hair in cases of severe malnutrition will be hypopigmented. As the nutrition improves the pigmentation of the hair will be normal. Hence the hair will be alternately normally pigmented and hypopigmented, giving the appearance of a flag

11. Kernig’s sign-The patient lies supine .The hip is flexed and the knee is extended passively. In patients with meningitis there will be pain and spasm of hamstrings.
It is positive in meningeal irritation and sub arachnoid haemorrhage. It is relatively less important in infancy and early childhood as it may be negative in spite of meningeal involvement. However, it is a very useful sign in older children.