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Wednesday, November 20, 2013


Depression is a chronic and recurrent mood disorder. Although many people may feel depressed at one time or another, clinical depression is defined when the symptoms interfere with everyday life for an extended period. It affects 3% to 5% of the general population, but it's reported to be significantly underdiagnosed and usually inadequately treated.

Forms of depression include major depression, dysthymia, postpartum depression, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and seasonal affective disorder.
File:Abraham Lincoln O-60 by Brady, 1862.jpg

Abraham Lincoln suffered from "melancholy",
known today as clinical depression.

Abraham Lincoln suffered from "melancholy",
known today as clinical depression.

The peak age of depression onset is between 20 and 40.

Causes :
- Some people may have a genetic predisposition to developing depression.
- Possible contributing factors
- Disappointment at home, work, or school
- Death of a friend or relative
- Prolonged pain or having a major illness
- Medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism, cancer, or hepatitis
- Drugs, such as sedatives and antihypertensives
- Alcohol or drug abuse
- Chronic stress
- Abuse or neglect
- Social isolation
- Nutritional deficiencies (such as folate and omega-3 fatty acids)
- Sleeping problems

Signs and symptoms
- Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” mood
- Feelings of hopelessness and pessimism
- Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, and helplessness
- Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities that were - once enjoyed
-Loss of energy or fatigue
-Unexplained pain
-GI symptoms
- Insomnia
- Dizziness
- Palpitations
- Heartburn
- Numbness
- Loss of appetite
- Premenstrual syndrome

*** In children, symptoms of depression include hyperactivity, poor school performance, somatic complaints, sleeping and eating disturbances, lack of playfulness, and suicidal ideation or actions.

Winston Churchill suffered from clinical
depression throughout his life.
He called it "black dog".

An imbalance of the neurotransmitters is thought to be the underlying mechanism in depression. In a person with normal levels of neurotransmitters, serotonin and norepinephrine are released from one neuron and travel to another one, activating receptors. After the receptors are activated, the neurotransmitters are taken up by the presynaptic neuron. A patient with depression has inadequate levels of serotonin or norepinephrine, thus not allowing this smooth transmission of impulses.

Diagnostic test results
Several screening questionnaires are used to detect depressive symptoms. They include:
Beck Depression Inventory
Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale
Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale.

* To screen for depression, ask your patient these two questions:
- Have you felt down, depressed, or hopeless for most of the past 2 weeks?
- Have you felt little interest or pleasure in performing activities for most of the past 2 weeks?
- If the patient answers yes to either question, further assessment is warranted.

J.K. Rowling, author of Harry Potter stories,
was diagnosed with clinical depression.

Treatment >>>
1- Medications < Antidepreesants >
- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine and sertraline
- Tricyclic antidepressants, such as nortriptyline and desipramine
- Venlafaxine
- Nefazodone
- Bupropion
- Monoamine oxidase inhibitors

2- Psychotherapy
3- Electroconvulsive therapy
4- Exercise
5- Other Treatments :
- Support groups
- Self-help literature
- Light therapy
thanks Web Medicine 

Sleep therapy seen as an aid for depression
Curing insomnia in people with depression could double their chance of a full recovery, scientists are reporting. The findings, based on an insomnia treatment that uses talk therapy rather than drugs, are the first to emerge from a series of closely watched studies of sleep and depression to be released in the coming year.

External Visual Attention Technique: Overcome Clinical Depression and Anxiety in just a few minutes!

Major psychological disorders such as Clinical Depression and Anxiety are associated with an excessive tendency for inward-directed mental attention. Inward-directed mental attention is the state of mind when your mental attention is directed towards the self rather than the external environment. In other words, it is the state of mind when your attention is engaged in your thoughts and your mind is detached from its surroundings. Excessive inward-directed mental attention is the primary mediating factor that triggers or exacerbates psychological vulnerabilities. By counteracting the tendency for inward-directed mental attention with a technique of external visual attention, you can overcome psychological disorders.
The technique of External Visual Attention was announced in a path-breaking research paper published in June 2013 in the medical journal Medical Hypotheses. If you like to be one of the first people to avail the benefits of this cutting edge discovery in medical research, then read on.
Please read the instructions in this page very carefully. If you take the following steps seriously and follow the instructions, then the technique can help you to achieve an immediate relief in the short term and a complete recovery in the long term. Please do not forget to bookmark this webpage since you may need to refer back to the instructions provided here. If you are being helped by my technique, use the donate button at the bottom of this page to support me.

The technique is based on the following principles:

  • The excessive tendency for inward-directed mental attention is the primary mediating factor in the onset and persistence of psychological disorders.
  • Psychological disorders can be overcome by counteracting the occurrence of inward-directed mental attention.
  • Consciously directing your visual attention towards the external world is the most effective way to counteract the tendency for inward-directed mental attention.

What is Inward-directed mental attention?

Inward-directed mental attention can be defined as the state of mind when one’s mental attention is directed towards the self rather than the external environment. Mental attention is directional - it can be directed inward or outward. Inward-directed mental attention is the state of mind when you are engaged in your thoughts and emotions and less attentive of your surroundings.
Immersive thinking, brooding, anxious thinking etc are typical examples of activities that often involve a high degree of inward-directed mental attention.
Moments of inward-directed mental attention are often very common in every person's daily life. Some amount of inward-directed mental attention is needed for our regular thinking processes. However, too much occurrence of inward-directed mental attention will result in excessive immersion in your thoughts and detachment from the external surroundings. Excessive occurrence of inward-directed attention prevents you from living in the present moment.

Excessive tendency for inward-directed mental attention is pathological

  • In a state of inward-directed mental attention, the subjective experience of your thoughts and emotions is intensified. The intensification of your thoughts and emotions can make it harder for you to disengage from them and will lead to overthinking and lose of rational perspective.
  • A state of inward-directed mental attention increases the mental engagement in internally generated stimuli (i.e., your thoughts and emotions) and decreases your mental engagement in external surroundings. Hence, excessive inward-directed mental attention can make you feel "wrapped up in your head" and disconnect you from the external surroundings.
  • Increased mental engagement and intensification of maladaptive thoughts will ultimately lead to the reinforcement of corresponding neural pathways in the brain. This is why inward-directed mental attention is considered to be the primary reason for the onset and exacerbation of psychological vulnerabilities.

Psychological disorders can be overcome by External Visual Attention technique

Unlike other therapies in psychology, external visual attention technique is unique because it is a technique of overcoming inward-directed mental attention. Emotional wellbeing can be achieved by training the mind to be more externally directed and less internally directed. Directing mental attention towards the external environment prevents a person from being lost in his thoughts and keeps him anchored in the "present moment". Visual stimuli from the external world provide the easiest and the most unambiguous reference frame to divert attention away from one's inner thoughts and emotions. In other words, consciously looking at the external world is the easiest and the most effective method to overcome inward-directed mental attention and train your mental attention to be more externally directed in the long term.
Persistent practice can modify maladaptive neural pathways in the brain and may result in a complete and lasting relief from OCD, Anxiety and Depression.

How to apply External Visual Attention technique?

To apply this technique, you simply have to "look at the external world". Do this frequently throughout your daily life and especially during times of psychological distress. The external world, in this context simply refers to your surroundings that you can see in your field of view. When you consciously look at your surroundings, your mental attention becomes externally directed and your mind easily disengages from its thought processes. In a state of externally directed mental attention, your mind is less vulnerable to the maladaptive thoughts generated in your mind.
The technique is very simple to apply. When you consciously look at the external world, you do not have to concentrate or focus your attention. You do not have to apply any effort. You do not have to think about what you look at.
Upon trying this technique, you may soon realise that it is difficult to keep your mind externally directed 100% of the time. Don't worry, this is normal. All that you should do is keep trying this technique often (but not too much) so that your mind is trained to become more externally directed in the long term. If you try this technique too much, you may get mentally tired and exhaust your will power. Hence, do this technique in moderation, at a pace that feels comfortable to you.
What makes External Visual Attention technique unique and highly effective is that it addresses the issue of inward-directed mental attention that has been neglected by all other therapeutic approaches currently in practice. Moreover, this technique has been specifically designed to be so simple that it can be easily practiced by anyone at anytime.
If you like to know more about this technique, check out the list of Frequently Asked Questions.
Additional Notes: Give this technique a higher priority than all other activities in your life and keep repeating the phrase "look at the external world" in your mind if you tend to be forgetful in applying the technique. You can direct your visual attention on anything in your field of vision, such as a face or a computer screen. This technique can be easily integrated into your daily life without causing any interruption to any of your activities. For instance, you can consciously look at things around you as you walk down the road or look at faces as you talk to people.

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