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Monday, January 16, 2012

History And Origin of Bharatanatyam


History and Origin of Bharatnatyam

 bharatanatyam

Bharata Natyam is one of the oldest dance forms of India. It was nurtured in the temples and courts of southern India since ancient times. Later it was codified and documented as a performing art in the 19th century by four brothers known as the Tanjore Quartet whose musical compositions for dance form the bulk of the Bharata Natyam repertoire even today. The art was handed down as a living tradition from generation to generation under the Devadasi system under which women were dedicated to temples to serve the deity as dancers and musicians forming part of the elaborate rituals. These highly talented artists and the male gurus (nattuvanars) were the sole repository of the art until the early 20th century when a renewal of interest in India's cultural heritage prompted the educated elite to discover its beauty.
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By this time the Devadasis had fallen upon evil days due to lack of state patronage and changed social mores. The revival of Bharata Natyam by pioneers such as E Krishna Iyer and Rukmini Devi Arundale brought the dance out of the temple precincts and onto the proscenium stage though it retained its essentially devotional character.
Today Bharata Natyam is one of the most popular and widely performed dance styles and is practiced by male and female dancers all over India. Due to its wide range of movements and postures and the balanced melange of the rhythmic and mimetic aspects lends itself well to experimental and fusion choreography. Degree and Post Graduate courses covering the practice and theory of Bharata Natyam as well as the languages associated with its development are available at major universities of India.


Bharatnatyam is an artistic yoga that involves the movement of the body parts in a very artistic and elegant manner. It is the most widely practiced of Indian classical dances in south India, and has it's origin in Tamil Nadu. The term Bharatnatyam was introduced in the mid thirties by S. Krishna Iyer and later spread by Rukminidevi Arundale. It comprises of Bhava,Raga, Tala, and Natya put together as Bharatanatyam.

Natyashastra is often reffered to as the Bible of Indian classical dance. It is said that the Gods and Godesses pleaded Brahma [the creator, as per Hindu Mythology] for the creation of another Veda, that was understandable by common man. So, Brahma created the fifth Veda, which is a combination of the existing four vedas [ Rig, Yajur, Sama, and Atharva Veda]. He propogated this veda on earth through Sage Bharatha, who wrote it down as Natyashastra. Brahma took pathya [ words ] from the Rig veda, Abhinaya [ communicative elements of the body movements] from the Yajur Veda, Geeth [ music and chant] from the Sama Veda, and Rasa [vital sentiment, an emotional element] from Atharva veda, to form the fifth veda - the Natya Veda. Bharatha, together with groups of Gandharvas and Apsaras performed Natya, Nrtta, and Nrtya before Lord Shiva [the Lord of Devine Dance]. Thus Natya became the authoritative form of classical Indian dances. The term "Bharatnatyam" partly owes it's name to Sage Bharatha.

The Natyashastra reads, "when the world had become steeped in greed and desire, in jelousy and anger, in pleasure and pain, the Supreme one (Brahma) was asked by the people to create an entertainment which could be seen and heard by all, for the scriptures were not enjoyed by the masses, being too learned and ambiguous." The creation of Natyashastra is very important in the kaliyuga (the age of destruction of the world, as per Hindu mythology).

Centuries ago, there were many dancers - priestesses in the Hindu temples in south India, called Devadasis. They would sing, dance and play many musical instruments. They were well versed in Sanskrit and other languages. Since these dancers were called Devadasis, Bharatnatyam was originally called Dasi Attam. In the olden days, the Devadasis were not allowed to have families, as they led a very strict life.

The term Bharatanatyam today identifies a particular style of dance. Hhttp://l.yimg.com/www.flickr.com/images/spaceball.gif
istorically, Bharatanatyam is a system of dance, described in the Natya Shastra, capable of manifesting various forms. Four related but distinct forms conforming to the system of Bharatanatyam are:



  • Sadir Natyam – a solo dance form performed for centuries by devadasis in temples and eventually in the royal courts of South India, especially in Tamil Nadu
  • Bhagavata Melam – a group form of dance drama from Tamil Nadu, with all roles perfo
  • rmed by men, and themes based on mythology
  • Kuravanji – a group dance by women, interpreting literary or poetic http://l.yimg.com/www.flickr.com/images/spaceball.gifcompositions typically on the theme of fulfillment of the love of a girl for her beloved
  • Kuchipudi – a group form of dance drama from Andhra Pradesh, with all roles performed by men, and themes based on mythology
While a number of India’s dance forms, like Manipuri, Mohini Attam, Yakshagana, and Kathakali, can be considered variations of the system of Bharatanatyam, they are not as firmly rooted in it 


 
Origins, Evolution, and Decline
What we know as Bharatanatyam today springs from Sadir Natyam, also known by names like Dasi AttamChinna Melam, or simply, Sadir. The term Sadir began with the Maratha rulers of South India in the 17th century, who called the dance Sadir Nautch. This corresponds to the presentation of the dance in the courts. A more exalted role of the dance is evoked by the name Dasi Attam, the dance of thedevadasis as a part of temple worship. A devadasi, whose name means servant (dasi) of divinity (deva), was an artist dedicated to the services of a temple. The dance of the devadasi was integral to the ritual worship. Devadasi families specialized in the arts of music and dance, and with the nattuvanars (dance masters), they maintained these traditions from generation to generation, supported by royal patronage.
Sculptural and literary evidence indicates that dances of the Bharatanatyam form, that is, based on the Natya Shastra, were used in temple worship throughout India. This original classical dance tradition deteriorated in the North due to repeated foreign invasions, and mixed dance forms replaced it. Fortunately, the dance tradition survived in South India, where it continued to be patronized by kings and maintained by the devadasi system.
This is not to say that the tradition of Bharatanatyam was static from the time of the Natya Shastra through the last century. It did evolve and there were regional variations in elements of the dance. An important milestone in this evolution was the development of the current format of the Bharatanatyam recital. This happened in the late 18th century, at the hands of four brothers known as the Thanjavur quartet. They were the four sons of the nattuvanar Subbarayan: Chinnayya, Ponnayya, Vadivelu, and Sivanandam. They also refined the music of Bharatanatyam, influenced no doubt by their musical mentor, the great composer Muthuswamy Dikshitar. These developments shaped Sadir into the precursor of what we call Bharatnatyam today.
Under British rule, propaganda prevailed against Indian art, misrepresenting it as crude, immoral, and inferior to the concepts of Western civilization. This influence was pervasive enough to dissuade the patronage of royal courts for ritual temple dances, and to alienate educated Indians from their traditions. The devadasi system declined. Most were forced to seek the patronage of ordinary wealthy people, becoming mere dasis, and in some cases prostitutes. This in turn diminished the reputation of the devadasis as a community. Even the terms by which the dance was known – SadirNautchDasi Attam, and so on – took on derogatory connotations. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, social reformers under Western influence took advantage of these circumstances, launching an Anti-Nautch campaign to eradicate not only the prostitution that had come to be associated with devadasis, but the art itself, condemning it as a social evil. By the first quarter of the 20th century, the classical dance of South India was almost wiped out, even in Tamil Nadu.
Revival
Against all odds, a few families preserved the knowledge of this dance tradition. Its revival involved individuals from disparate backgrounds: Indian freedom fighters, Westerners interested in Indian arts, people outside the devadasi class who learnt Bharatanatyam, and devadasis themselves. Everyone working with classical Indian dance today owes a debt of gratitude to these individuals, without whose efforts Bharatanatyam may have been lost.
E. Krishna Iyer was a freedom fighter and lawyer who also had learnt Bharatanatyam. He would perform it in female costume to remove the stigma associated with the dance, and campaigned to raise public interest in the art. He also played a role in founding the Music Academy in Madras (now Chennai), and used its platform to present Bharatanatyam performances by devadasis. The public controversy caused by the first such event made the second one a great success, and the art gained respect due to its acceptance on the Music Academy stage.
Bharatanatyam now attracted young artists from respectable Brahmin families. Initially met with shock, their participation ultimately helped to shift public opinion in favor of reviving the art. Two such women were Kalanidhi Narayanan of Mylapore and Rukmini Devi of Adyar.
Also during this time, Western luminaries like the ballerina Anna Pavlova were taking interest in the artistic heritage of India, while the spiritual heritage of India was being promoted by Westerners in the Theosophical movement.
When E. Krishna Iyer invited Rukmini Devi to the Music Academy performance, beginning her work with Bharatanatyam, she had already produced plays on Indian subjects and studied Western ballet. She had trained in ballet under a pupil of Anna Pavlova’s, but Pavlova advised Rukmini Devi to learn Indian classical dance instead. Raised in a Theosophist family, Rukmini Devi was married to Dr. George Arundale, a president of the Theosphical Society, and knew Dr. Annie Besant. Both Dr. Arundale and Dr. Besant worked for India’s freedom and the restoration of its spiritual stature. Rukmini Devi’s unique background equipped her to reform the existing Bharatanatyam to emphasize its spirituality.
An association of devadasis joined the effort to revive Bharatanatyam. Its ranks included an eventual teacher of Rukmini Devi’s, as well as the family of the legendary dancer Balasaraswati. They advocated preserving the tradition, and also keeping it in the hands of the devadasi community. Their argument was that the art would die if separated from the caste, while advocates for Bharatanatyam from the educatedBrahmin community argued that the art had to be transferred to respectable hands to be saved. Ultimately, both communities carried on with the dance. It was, after all, the devadasis and nattuvanars that trained the new dancers from upper class society.
Rukmini Devi’s debut performance in 1935 was a milestone. Her efforts won over much of the orthodox community of Madras. Her reforms of costume, stage setting, repertoire, musical accompaniment, and thematic content, overcame the objections of conservatives that Bharatanatyam was vulgar. She went on to found the Kalakshetra institute, to which she attracted many great artists and musicians, with whom she trained generations of dancers.
             
Balasaraswati promoted the traditional art of the devadasis, maintaining that reforms were unnecessary and detracted from the art. Staying true to her devadasi lineage, she achieved great renown for her excellence.
The renewed awareness of Bharatanatyam in Indian society allowed manynattuvanars to resume their training activities, and many artists to enter the field of classical dance. A diversity of styles like Pandanallur, Vazhuvur, and Thanjavur, named for the villages from which the nattuvanars came, became recognized. Rukmini Devi’s desire to restore the full spiritual potential of the dance motivated reforms that led to what was known as the Kalakshetra style of Bharatanatyam.
Bharatanatyam soon became the most widespread and popular of the Indian classical dance forms. It wasn’t long before it achieved international recognition as one of India’s treasures.
Recent Changes
Compared to the millennia for which this art form has existed, the period from its revival in the 1930s through the present day has been one of explosive change. It is likely that more has changed during the past fifty years than during any other time in the history of Bharatanatyam. The modern world is a new environment for this ancient art form. For centuries, the survival of Bharatanatyam depended on a system of dedicated dancers, lifelong trainers, and royal patrons, to all of whom the dance was an integral part of social and religious life. There is no equivalent in modern society, so how is Bharatanatyam being kept alive today?
the vital decades after its revival, Bharatanatyam achieved such esteem that by the late 20th century, the demand for learning Bharatanatyam exceeded the infrastructure to support the art and maintain its standards. Today, it is the demand for learning it, rather than a growth in its audience or sponsorship, that fuels the spread of Bharatanatyam.





Dancers, rather than the nattuvanars, have become the custodians of the art form. The generation of nattuvanars that trained dancers during the revival period was the last generation of exclusive nattuvanars. Due to sheer numbers of aspiring dancers,nattuvanars no longer are the only trainers of dancers. In institutions like Kalakshetra, experienced dancers trained as teachers educate the next generation. But even more students now learn privately from individual dancers. The role of thenattuvanars during performances is taken by dancers or musicians with special training.
The number of dancers, or aspiring dancers, also exceeds the availability of specialized musicians or of patronage. Dancers often must take financial responsibility for performances, while musicians, performance halls, and others charge fixed fees regardless of the income generated by the performance. Many are forced to use recorded music to keep costs down. Dancers today usually can’t make a living by performing. With a few exceptions, Bharatanatyam is today a secondary career, or a profession for those with family support. Few dancers can devote their entire lives to training and developing as dancers. To earn money, dancers start teaching early in their careers. These circumstances have created a downward spiral of declining standards and diminishing audiences.
Without nattuvanars, and with more and more dancers becoming teachers, the unbroken lineage of instruction that maintained the integrity of the dance form has been lost. In the hands of many dancers rather than a few trainers, Bhartanatyam is now subject to more numerous innovations. Without a recognized authority, like that of the nattuvanars, to adopt or reject changes to maintain standards, and without educated audiences to provide meaningful feedback, the art form of Bharatanatyam is open to unrestrained variations.
    
Innovation and variation themselves are not bad. The problem is when inappropriate innovations are claimed to be consistent with, or part of, an existing tradition. Artists have diverse motivations, and their performances provide different experiences. To capitalize on the reputation of Bharatanatyam for classicism and artistry, instead of letting their innovations stand on their own merits, most artists claim to be standard bearers of the same classical dance tradition. This confuses audiences, and discredits the art itself.
Another recent phenomenon is the learning of Bharatanatyam as a rite of passage for young Indian women, especially outside India. After their arangetram, they abandon the dance. Once the initiation of a dancer’s performing career, the arangetram has become a closing ceremony of sorts. The income from arangetrams induces many teachers to rush unqualified dancers to the stage. The result is a steady supply of novice performers that don’t develop into experts capable of doing justice to the art.
Today’s Bharatanatyam exists in great quantity, but with a wide variation in quality. There is the exquisite, seen rarely; there is the ridiculous, seen all too often. Bharatanatyam’s problems today are not because of oppression, as with thedevadasis a century ago, but due to mindless popularity and commercialization. The consequent loss of standards means the art is often presented poorly or inappropriately, but audiences often don’t know a good performance from a bad one. If the crown jewel of India’s classical dances gets a reputation as a sloppy and amateurish medium, the indifference it will elicit will threaten its survival more than any of the challenges it has endured in the past.
Description of Bharatanatyam
Bharatanatyam has many dimensions. They include body movements, facial expressions, hand gestures, footwork, costumes, music, repertoire, and themes of performances. Because Bharatanatyam is so well developed, all of these aspects of the art have been codified, and are documented in ancient scriptures as well as recent books. Our description of Bharatanatyam is intended for a spectator, and one who is relatively unfamiliar with the dance, as opposed to a dance student, professional, or scholar.
Rukmini Devi has said that the difference between a technical expert and an artistic genius is the ability to master the technique and then forget it. By transcending technique and forgetting oneself, a dancer enters the spirit of the dance and expresses it. Similarly, those of us interested in Bharatanatyam can benefit by knowing a little about the technique and language of the art form. Otherwise, we can be distracted or puzzled by details of technique or appearance, and miss the deeper meaning. When we are accustomed to the mode of expression of Bharatanaytam, then we can see beyond it, and experience what is being expressed in the performance.
We’ll touch on the terminology and organization of various elements of the dance, outline the different dance items that make up a recital, and attempt to explain how they all come together to give expression to the dancer and enjoyment to the audience. Since our description doesn’t cover the categories of movements, expressions, and other elements of Bharatanatyam in great depth, we’ll provide references for further study.
We’ll focus on solo Bharatanatyam performances for our description. What is most commonly meant by Bharatanatyam today is a solo performance by a female dancer, although performances by males, group dances, and even dance dramas are done under the name of Bharatanatyam. We’ll also stick to what’s come to be generally accepted as traditional Bharatanatyam over the past century, ignoring for now various “innovative” mutations of the dance form.
Basic Features
On the surface, three aspects of Bharatanatyam are evident, as with any dance form: movement, costume, and music. In other words, what the dancer is doing, how the dancer looks, and what are the accompanying sounds. We’ll describe these aspects of the dance, and later on, attempt to explain their combined effect, which is the intention of the dance.
Movement
There are two kinds of movements in Bharatanatyam – abstract and expressive. The abstract movements are done to show rhythm, to provide decoration, and to create beauty. There is no purpose but movement for its own sake. Expressive movements convey meaning and show emotion, through a vocabulary of hand gestures, postures, and facial expressions. Their purpose is to portray a theme or feeling, and to transmit an experience of it to the audience.


The movements of Bharatanatyam are unique. They share elements with other classical Indian dances, but aren’t found in any western dance style. They are often described as geometric, for there is much geometry in the basic postures and movements of which the dance is built, but this makes them sound static, which they aren’t. Bharatanatyam is dynamic and energetic; it is also precise and balanced. The basic postures center the weight of the dancer, and there is little use of the hips or off-balance positions. Bharatanatyam has a variety of characteristic movements. Along with the rhythmic stamping of the feet, there are jumps, pirouettes, and positions where the knees contact the floor. Many are executed in the stance with knees bent and turned outward. Performed by an expert dancer, these movements flow together gracefully. An exceptional feature of Bharatanatyam is the movements of the eyes, which complement and highlight the movements of the body. Every part of the body is involved in the dance, and their movements are defined and classified (in great number) in this system of dance. In our description, we won’t go deep into the classifications of the elements of Bharatanatyam. We’ll mention just enough terminology to show the important elements that are present.
Costume

Bharatanatyam costumes for women resemble Indian saris, but are specialized for the dance. Despite the resemblance to saris, they are not single pieces of cloth, but combinations of a number of specially stitched pieces. This customization makes them easier to wear, and easier to dance in than a sari. Most costumes involve pleated pieces at the waist than fan out attractively during various movements. The costumes are bright and colorful. They inherit from the sari tradition the use of contrasting border colors, and the borders of the various pieces of the costumes form patterns that decorate the dancer’s form.
An essential item of the Bharatanatyam costume is the pair of anklets or ankle bells (salangai in Tamil, gungaroo in Hindi). They make the rhythmic footwork of the dance audible. Dancers treat their salangai like musicians treat their instruments (in India, that is). The salangai are blessed by the dancer’s guru, they are worshipped on special occasions, and are never worn casually.
Women’s costumes involve a significant amount of jewelry, including bangles, rings, earrings, nose rings, and special ornaments for the arms and head.
There is, of course, makeup for the dance, and Bharatanatyam makeup has a few unique features. Heavy lines are drawn around the eyes, extending outwards past the eyes. Similarly, the eyebrows are darkened and extended outwards with liner. The purpose of this makeup is to accentuate the movements of the eyes and eyebrows, and make them more visible, because they are an important part of the dance, especially for expression. A red dye is applied to the soles of the feet and the tips of the toes, as well as to the fingertips. It is also painted in a solid circle in the palm of each hand. This unique decoration serves to emphasize the movements of the hands and feet.
    
The costumes of men are simpler, usually a dhoti covering the lower body and no upper garment. The men also wear ankle bells or salangai. They wear much less jewelry than women. Men do apply the same makeup to the eyes as women, since it serves an important purpose in the dance, but not to the hands and feet.
The Bharatanatyam costume is intended to look beautiful. It was the dress worn to dance for gods in temples, or for kings in palaces. When a dancer enters, the costume leaves no doubt that it is a special occasion.

Music
Bharatanatyam is accompanied by music of the Carnatic style, that has been specialized for dance. The music is specialized in a few ways.
  • In a music concert, the musician’s talent is displayed; in a dance performance, the musicians must focus on accompaniment and support the dancer. Excessive ornamentation and improvisation in the music distracts from the dance. Improvisation is left to the dancer, in particular phases of items. The musicians must be able to take cues from the dancer to make impromptu adjustments.
  • The range of tempos in the music is limited to what a dancer can physically handle. The percussionists must also play so that they emphasize the beats that are important to the dancer, and avoid virtuoso demonstrations that don’t support the dancer.
  • The musical group for a dance performance includes someone capable of doingnattuvangam, that is, calling out rhythmic syllables that denote dance movements, and striking cymbals on particular beats as cues to the dancer. This skill usually belongs to dancers and dance teachers, and not to concert musicians.
Bharatanatyam goes hand in hand with Carnatic music. Many dance items, like thepadamvarnamkirtanam, and tillana, share their names with musical items that have the same structure. The thematic content of the music and dance are the same. This is natural, as both art forms are South Indian in origin.
Music that is composed for dance items typically makes use of rhythmic patterns (talas) and melodies (ragas) that suit the theme of the dance. The synergy between the music and dance is important in transmitting an experience of the theme to the audience. The expressive power of Carnatic music is such that often the music alone can move the audience. Depending on how you look at it, this either frees the dancer of the responsibility to deliver a strong performance, or challenges the dancer to do justice to the music.
Distinctive Features
Now we’ll encounter some terminology and classifications. The terminology is necessary to describe some deeper aspects of Bharatanatyam, and the classifications of various facets of the dance illustrate how well developed an art form it is.
NrittaNrityaNatya
At the functional level, the dance has three aspects:
  • Nritta: Abstract dance movements with rhythm, but without expression of a theme or emotion. Also called pure dance.
  • Nritya: Interpretive dance, using facial expressions, hand gestures, and body movements to portray emotions and express themes.
  • Natya: The dramatic aspect of a stage performance, including spoken dialogue and mime, to convey meaning and enact narrative.
Despite some overlap between natya and nritya, they differ in that natya does not include dance, and nritya does not include speech. While Bharatanatyam includes the mimetic and narrative aspects of natya, it does not use spoken dialogue. The definitions of terms like nrittanatya, and nritya are not critical for a spectator, but it’s good to know that these elements are present as features of the dance. In different Bharatanatyam numbers, the balance between nrittanatya, and nrityavaries. In general, the dominant aspect of Bharatanatyam is nritya.
One way to tell whether a dancer is doing nritta or nritya is by the music. The music for passages of pure nritta does not have lyrics; the names of rhythmic beats are called out, or the names of musical notes are sung. For interpretive dance withnritya and natya components, lyrics with meaning are sung, and the dance expresses the sentiment or the meaning of the lyrics. Another way to distinguish nritta andnritya is by the facial expressions of the dancer. Nritta is usually done with a smile, and despite eye movements, the face maintains a stable emotion. In nritya, various expressions cross the dancer’s face, showing different emotions. All the parts of the face may be active in displaying the emotions. There are Bharatanatyam items that are entirely abstract, and others that are entirely interpretive, but most of them include elements of nritta and nritya, often in alternating passages.

Dance Vocabulary of Bharatanatyam
Bharatanatyam has a rich language of expression. Let’s look one level deeper, into the building blocks of the dance, the words and letters of the language. Both nrittaand nritya are achieved by a combination of movements and positions involving the feet, limbs, and body, along with hand gestures and facial expressions. These elements are well defined, and constitute a vocabulary that characterizes Bharatanatyam. Natya is achieved through portrayal of characters and themes, which are also described in scriptures.
Scriptures like the Natya Shastra and Abhinayadarpana classify the elements of dance in great detail and in large arrays; we’ll point you to the books to study them further. For now, we’ll just mention various categories of Bharatanatyam elements, so you’ll know they exist, and can notice them in the dance.
The basic unit of dance in Bharatanatyam is the adavu. Each adavu is a combination of steps or positions with coordinated movements of the feet, legs, hands, arms, torso, head, and eyes. Adavus give Bharatanatyam its distinctive look. For instance, many adavus are executed with the legs bent, knees outward, heels together and toes outward – a position called araimandi. The adavus, numbering around 120 in all, are divided into numerous groups and subgroups. Some adavus are accompanied by rhythmic syllables, or sollukattus, that put together the steps of the adavu in a time sequence or meter. Sollukattu, which in Tamil means spoken (sol) structure (kattu), is a verbal description of an arrangement of beats or steps. For example, the phrase, “thai-yum-that-that thai-yum-tha” is the sollukattu for an adavu named Nattadavu. Various sollukattus have phrases like “thai-ya-thai-yi”, “tadhing-gina-thom”, and “kita-thaka-thari-kita-thom”. If you ever watch a Bharatanatyam class, you’ll hear many such phrases being called out by the teacher as the students practice adavus.
The hand gestures of Bharatanatyam are called hastas. Sometimes, you may hear them called mudras, or hasta mudras. There are one-handed and two-handedhastas, there are lots of them, and they all have names. When a hasta is employed in a specific context for a specific purpose, it gets a special name for that use. For example, the Tripataka hasta is a gesture in which the hand and fingers are held flat, with the ring finger bent at the knuckle so that it is perpendicular to the palm. This is the position of the hands in Nattadavu, and for this application, and any other nrittaapplication, it is called Tripataka or Tripataka hasta. When it is used in nritya to denote fire, or to portray a tree, it is still called Tripataka hasta, but when it is used to denote Vishnu, it is called Vishnu hasta. In general, when the hastas are used to denote deities, celestial bodies (like the nine planets), or relations, their names are changed according to the application. All the hastas find use in nritya, but only a subset of them are used in nritta; these are also called nritta hastas. During nritta, the hastas convey no meaning. They are purely decorative. In nritya, the hastas are a vital aspect of the expressive language of the dance. They describe things and objects, they express concepts like truth, beauty, or the passage of time, they depict thoughts, words, and actions, and they combine with facial expressions to show emotions. The same hasta, used with different arm movements or in a different context, can have a different meaning. This is how the Tripataka hasta can be used for fire or a tree, and can also become the Vishnu hasta. This is just a simple example; most hastas have dozens of different uses.
The facial expressions of Bharatanatyam are called abhinaya. (To be precise,abhinaya is the art of expression, and facial expressions are one aspect of abhinaya, but the term abhinaya is commonly used to refer to facial expressions. We’ll discussabhinaya further in its own section later.) The dancer uses facial expressions to show emotions. The emotions may come from the poetry in the music, or belong to a character being portrayed. The expressive aspect of the dance is the means by which the dancer can communicate an inner experience to the audience. The emotions shown by the dancer create a response in the audience, an experience of feeling or sentiment. Bharatanatyam scriptures have organized the process by which sentiment is produced, and categorized the different types of aesthetic emotions. Each sentiment is associated with causes, consequences, and passing feelings, all in the presence of a dominant emotion. The dancer may enact many passing feelings (called sanchari bhava) to show the effects (called anubhava) produced by the causes (called vibhava) of the emotional state, and to reveal the fullness of the dominant emotion (called sthayi bhava). For example, to describe a main emotion of love, the dancer may portray various transitory feelings like impatience, weakness, excitement, anxiety, and so on, to suggest the longing for one’s beloved. In Bharatanatyam, there are nine emotions – shringara (love, eros), vira (valor, heroism), karuna (sadness), adbhuta (awe, amazement), raudra (fury), hasya(laughter, humor), bhayanaka (fear), bibhatsa (revulsion), and shanta (peace) – and countless passing feelings that may be enacted. The portrayal of feelings in abhinayais stylized rather than literal. For example, to illustrate sadness by describing the flow of tears, a Bharatanatyam dancer doesn’t actually shed tears (as a movie actor would), but indicates the flow of tears using hand gestures combined with facial expressions.
In addition to the fundamental emotions, categorized in the Natya Shastra and other scriptures, the vocabulary of Bharatanatyam includes a variety of characters, and their associated qualities, that are used to develop themes. The nayika or heroine, the nayaka or hero, and the sakhi or friend, are examples of such characters. TheNatya Shastra lists eights types of nayikas based on their emotional circumstances. In addition, there are categorizations like the ten graces of women, the ten stages of love, and so on. Characters may also be classified according to their stature, asuttama (noble, divine), madhyama (human), and adhama (base), as well as according to their moral disposition, as swakiya (faithful wife), parakiya (married but longs for another), and samanya (courtesan). The stature and qualities of characters influence which emotions they experience, modify the emotions they do experience, and determine their responses to different circumstances. Without going into all the details and definitions of character that are documented, we can see by the attention given to the nuances of emotion and character, that the portrayal of various states and moods is the subject of great artistry in Bharatanatyam. It extends the language of Bharatanayam into the realm of poetry.
We’ve touched on a few of the most prominent aspects of the dance vocabulary of Bharatanatyam, without going into much depth. There are many details that we haven’t covered. Nevertheless, we can begin to how these elements fit together as building blocks for the dance. Adavus and nritta hastas are the foundation of nritta.Adavus and the full range of hastas, together with abhinaya, make up nritya. The use of abhinaya and character provides the dramatic element, or natya. This is certainly a simplistic explanation, but it illustrates the depth of the Bharatanatyam vocabulary. Each basic element in the list is a deep subject in its own right.





Simplistic Breakdown of Bharatanatyam
Abstract Dance

The abstract movements of nritta create an array of rhythmic patterns, shapes, and forms in coordination with music. The movements and music complement each other, displaying the beauty of the dynamic abstract form. To appreciate how these elements come together, it helps to know some of the concepts or structures being employed by the musicians and dancers. We mentioned earlier that you can recognize nritta when the singer sings the names of notes or the nattuvanar calls out rhythmic syllables. Of course, for this you need to be able to recognize the solfa syllables of the notes, or the syllables that denote beats. We’ll briefly look at the source of these syllables in music and dance, and then show nritta uses them.
Rhythmic Structure
In Carnatic music, the rhythmical structure of a composition is made up of patterns called talas. The closest concept to tala in Western music is meter, but it’s not exactly the same. A repeated cycle of tala consists of a number of equally spaced beats, which are grouped into combinations of three patterns. These patterns are the laghudhrutam, and anudhrutam. By the way, if you watch people keeping time at an Indian classical music or dance recital, the specific way they mark beats by tapping their laps with their fingers, palm, and back of the hand, are determined by these patterns of the tala.
  • dhrutam is a pattern of two beats, denoted by “0”.
  • An anudhrutam is a single beat, denoted by “U”.
  • laghu is a pattern of 3, 4, 5, 7, or 9 beats, denoted by “1”, and the specific number characterizes the type or jaathi of the tala.
There are seven families of talas, depending on the arrangement of patterns in a cycle.

Name
Pattern Sequence
Abbreviation
Default Laghu
Dhruva
laghu-dhrutam-laghu-laghu
1011
4 beats
Matya
laghu-dhrutam-laghu
101
4 beats
Rupaka
dhrutam-laghu
01
4 beats
Jhampa
laghu-anudhrutam-dhrutam
1U0
7 beats
Triputa
laghu-dhrutam-dhrutam
100
3 beats
Ata
laghu-laghu-dhrutam-dhrutam
1100
5 beats
Eka
laghu
1
4 beats
According to the number of beats in the laghu, the five different jaathis have their own names.
3 beats
Tisra
4 beats
Chatusra
5 beats
Khanda
7 beats
Misra
9 beats
Sankeerna
The jaathi is also known by the term chaapu in Carnatic music.
Each of the seven tala families has a default jaathi associated with it, as listed in the table above, which is implied when no jaathi is specified. Thus Triputa tala by itself means Tisra-jaathi Triputa tala. Furthermore, since Eka tala consists of a singlelaghutalas in this family are sometimes called only by the jaathi name. For example, Misra Chaapu is a common name for Misra-jaathi Eka tala.

Based on the tala families and laghu lengths, there are 7 x 5 = 35 talas. The shortest is Tisra-jaathi Eka tala at 3 beats and the longest is Sankeerna-jaathi Dhruva tala at 29 beats. Note that there are instances where multiple talas have the same number of beats. For example, Tisra-jaathi Triputa tala has seven beats, just like Misra-jaathiEka tala. From a dancer’s perspective, talas with the same number of beats are identical, but a percussionist will play them differently. The beats may have different emphasis, or may be played with different drum notes.
Each beat may be further divided into a number of counts. The number of counts per beat is called the nadai or gati of the tala, and can be 3, 4, 5, 7, or 9. The default is 4. The names Tisra, Chatusra, Khanda, Misra, and Sankeerna, are used for the nadaias they are for the jaathi. Thus, Chatusra-nadai Khanda-jaathi Ata tala has 5 + 5 + 2+ 2 = 14 beats of 4 counts each, for 56 counts. It could also be called Chatusra-gati Khanda-chaapu Ata tala. With the defaults for nadai and jaathi, it could also be called simply Ata tala.
There are actually many more talas than the 35 that arise from the seven families mentioned above. Most are not used outside of elite music performances. The most popular talas have short aliases. For example, Chatusra-nadai Chatusra-jaathi Triputa tala, an eight-beat cycle, is simply called Aadi tala. Some of the most common talasfor Bharatanatyam are Adi, Rupaka, and Mishra Chaapu.
The tempo, or kaala, of the rhythm is independent of the tala. There are three speeds used for dance: slow (vilamba), medium (madhya), and fast (drut). Medium is double the speed of slow, and fast is four times the speed of slow.

Sources of Syllables
The syllables used to accompany nritta come from four sources: rhythmic beats of the tala, drum beats from percussion, musical notes, and steps of the adavus.
Within the tala, the beats in each jaathi are given syllables that are used in dance.
3 beats
Tisra
tha-ki-ta
4 beats
Chatusra
tha-ka-dhi-mi
5 beats
Khanda
tha-ka tha-ki-ta
7 beats
Misra
tha-ka dhi-mi tha-ki-ta
9 beats
Sankeerna
tha-ka dhi-mi tha-ka tha-ki-ta
In addition to the syllables used for the beats in each jaathi, there are syllables for the dhrutam and anudhrutam. The anudhrutam is a single beat, denoted by “tha”. The dhrutam is two beats, denoted by “tha-ka”, but if two dhrutams are together, the four beats are denoted by “tha-ka dhi-mi”. For the counts in the nadai, if it is actually being called out, the same syllables of the jaathi are used. Thus, there is a full set of syllables to denote all the specific beats of a rhythmic cycle.
The drums used for Indian music can produce a variety of sounds, and are even tuned to match the pitch of the music. Bharatanatyam almost always uses themridangam for percussion. To account for various sounds or voice of the drum, percussionists use an expanded set of syllables beyond what is used to describe thetala alone. Their vocabulary adds syllables like “dheen”, “dhin”, “gin”, “jhum”, “na”, “num”, “ri”, “thi”, and “thom” to the tala syllables. The term jati, is used to refer to drum syllables, or sequences of drum syllables.
The musical notes of the scale are designated by the syllables “sa-ri-ga-ma-pa-da-ni-sa”. These are like the solfa syllables “do-re-mi-fa-so-la-ti-do” in Western music, although the system of scales is different. The syllables for the musical notes are called swaras. In music concerts, singers have various ways of singing melodies without lyrics, one of which is singing the swaras. During dance, melodies without lyrics almost always sung with swaras. The exception is during a tillana, a dance item that shares its name with a type of musical composition. South Indian tillana singing is based on the North Indian practice of tarana, in which most of the syllables used are from the tabla, and certain syllables are used often because they sound pleasant. In a tillana, these special rhythmic syllables are sung with a melody.
Finally, the sollukattus associated with dance adavus provide another set of syllables. This set includes more syllables that sound like the striking of the floor with the feet, like “tham”, “thai”, and “thath”. The adavu sollukattus differ from the other sources of syllables mentioned above in that they are linked directly to the dance movements rather than to the music.
Rhythmic Compositions in Nritta
The abstract dance of nritta involves movements performed to the accompaniment of rhythmic sounds, which may be melodic or purely rhythmic. There are many ways to blend the movement and sound for artistic effect. We’ll briefly mention a few specific features of nritta compositions, since they appear in certain Bharatanatyam items that we’ll describe later. These features are defined by the combination of rhythmic music and dance movements. Therefore, our description of them focuses on the rhythm of the movements, rather than the forms and shapes of the movements themselves. (Description of the movements in words is difficult, even with lots of references to adavus, and a comprehensive study of the adavus and movements is left to serious students.)
The music compositions for Bharatanatyam allow passages of abstract dance to be interposed in the performance. During these passages, the nattuvanar who conducts the dance intones the rhythmic syllables and the dancer dances to them. The sequences of syllables from the nattuvanar are called sullokattus or jatis(disregarding the specific meanings of these terms in the context of adavus or percussion). It is common for nattuvanars to embellish the syllables, or even invent ones of their own, to achieve a desired effect. A phrase like “dhanuku-jhonuku-tham dhrugu-thaka dhrugu-thaka-thai” is clearly rooted in the basic tala or adavusyllables, but sounds better.
A passage of rhythmic syllables during the recital is called a teermanam. The artistry in composing a teermanam is in the interaction of the jati passage with the rhythm of the musical composition. Teermanams frequently involve cross rhythms. A simple example is a teermanam in triple time during a musical composition in four time, where the length of the teermanam would be twelve beats (or another suitable multiple). The dancer would switch rhythms during the teermanam to follow thenattuvanar. Such compositions allow a greater variety of adavus to be used in the dance choreography, since adavus are associated with specific rhythms. A pleasing composition balances variety with grace, using the interplay of various movements, diverse rhythms, and the three different speeds for a complementary effect.
The rhythmical movements of nritta may also be performed to the accompaniment ofswaras, the syllables of musical notes sung by the singer. A particular Bharatanatyam item consisting of pure nritta danced to swaras is called thejatiswaram. The choreography of movements for a jatiswaram takes into account the mood of the musical composition, so that there is harmony in the item. There are instances of dancing to swaras during other items, like varnams, but these instances are not called jatiswarams. The term swarajati refers to something quite different – a musical composition in which there are swara and jati combinations, but that is distinguished by the singing of the rhythmic syllables with a melody. Dances have been composed for these musical items, but they are not as common as jatiswarams.
The composition of rhythmical movements is a combination of adavus, which are basic dance units. Sometimes, these adavu sequences are called adavu-jatis. Another term worth mentioning is a korvai, which is a collection of adavu sequences that corresponds to a verse or section of the music.
Even though nritta is abstract, the combination of swaras and jatis with dance movements does produce a feeling. When nritta passages are included in expositorynritya dance items, the nritta choreography is done in harmony with the mood of the item, or the qualities of a character being portrayed. Dance with vigorous, brisk movements is called Tandava, and it has various types, such as Ananda Tandava, which is performed with joy, and Rudra Tandava, performed with anger or violence.Tandava is considered masculine, and its feminine counterpart is called Lasya. The movements of Lasya are graceful, fluid, and tender. Thus, even in abstract dance without the use of abhinaya, the mood evoked by pure movements in coordination with music is taken into account for a congruous composition.
Expressive Dance
Bharatanatyam’s most powerful feature is its ability to express meaning and emotion, and to transmit an experience to the audience. This is a profound subject, of which we’ll just touch the surface, by looking at two of its aspects. One is the art ofabhinaya, and the other is the blending of music and dance to express more than either could alone.
Abhinaya
Abhinaya was mentioned earlier in the context of facial expressions, but in reality it is much more. It refers to the art of expression, as well as transmitting an experience to the audience. Thus, it enters all aspects of the dance, including nrittanritya, and natyaAbhinaya is a distinguishing characteristic of Bharatanatyam; it goes beyond conveying an abstract aesthetic experience, beyond narration, beyond showing a story unfolding, and expresses the inner experience of the dancer, or the character portrayed by the dancer. To be believable, the dancer must truly enter the spirit of what is being portrayed. How fully the dancer is expected to embody the subject will be evident from a brief description of the different aspects of abhinaya.
  • Angika (body)
  • Vachika (voice)
  • Aharya (costume)
  • Satvika (state)
Angika relates to body movements, which are the primary means of expression in Bharatanatyam. The relationship of every movement to the emotions is taken into account. Movements are classified as belonging to the angas or major parts of the body, pratyangas or intermediate parts of the body, and upangas, which include the extremities and facial features. Thus, the entire body of the dancer is a vehicle for expression. Angika also covers the previously mentioned hand gestures and eye movements.
Vachika relates to expression through speech or song. Dialogue is used in dramas, and also in Bhagavata Melam and Kuravanji performances, but not in Bharatanatyam recitals. In Bharatanatyam, vachika pertains to how the singer expresses the emotion through the music. The practice of dancers singing while enacting abhinaya existed in Balasaraswati’s time, but is hardly ever seen now. Thus vachika is now the domain of the vocalists who accompany the dancers.
Aharya relates to expression through costume, jewelry, and make-up. These elements should be designed to complement the emotions being expressed by the dancer and the singer.
Satvika relates to the expression of emotional states that result from circumstances or events. The dancer embodies the emotion through appropriate facial expressions and body movements. The emotions portrayed by the dancer must be in harmony with those expressed by the music, to create the right mood. The authenticity with which the dancer expresses emotion, and the dancer’s ability to enter the spirit of what is being portrayed, determines how well the audience will be engaged, and what kind of response will be elicited in them.
         
All four types of abhinaya may be used in combination, and in differing amounts, to achieve a believable and moving performance.
Understanding the different types of abhinaya helps you appreciate more fully what is being expressed in the dance. For angika abhinaya, knowing the language of gestures is the key. For vachika abhinaya, you should understand the lyrics of the music. Even with an incomplete understanding of these modes of expression, you can follow much of the content if you know the story, context, or theme of the performance. For aharya abhinaya, an aesthetic sense is sufficient. Some familiarity with the Indian style of dress and decoration helps, so that the costumes don’t seem so unusual that they are distracting. Satvika abhinaya evokes a response to the emotional state of the dancer. To some extent, this happens naturally and intuitively, but understanding the techniques of angikavachika, and aharya abhinaya can make the difference between the form of the dance interfering with the experience or enhancing it. Ideally, for both the dancer and the audience, the dance form or technique is a means to an end, which is to transcend the form, and go beyond it to the inner experience.
Synthesis of Music and Dance
For expressive dance, lyrics are sung, and their meaning is brought out by the dance. In addition to the rhythmical aspects which we have discussed, the elements of melody and poetry are important.

The term raga refers to the melodic scale of the music, and ragas are a separate topic for study in Indian classical music, both Carnatic and Hindustani. For our purposes, it’s enough to know that different ragas, or melodic patterns of notes, are ascribed different moods or sentiments. Thus, the choice of raga for a dance item should suit its theme. This is why certain types of dance items favor certain ragas. For example, a shabdam is a dance item of praise or salutation, and the majority of them use a raga called Kambhoji.
The poetic content of the music is called sahityaSahitya means more than just the lyrics, it also refers to prosody, the system of poetic meters and versification. In Carnatic music, the blending of beautiful music and exquisite poetry is done with great artistry. The syllables of the sahitya merge with the musical setting to create the full effect. A mark of great composers is that their sahitya can reveal facets of the raga or bring out its essence. Similarly, the sahitya of the music for Bharatanatyam contributes to the feeling of the dance item, along with the melody and rhythm.
The union of music and dance in Bharatanatyam is such that the whole is greater than its parts. In the same way that the teermanam employs rhythmic sollukattusand dance steps that are variations on the rhythm of the musical composition, theabhinaya of the dance rendered in expository gestures and facial expressions, depicts variations on the theme in the sahitya of the music. A musical composition may use the same lyrics in several repetitions, varying the melody or emphasis, while the dancer uses different mimetic language to describe a different aspect of the theme in each repetition. Thus the dance extends the poetic theme of the music. The result is a more profound expression of meaning or emotion, a more moving experience for the audience.
Program of a Recital
The sequence of items in a Bharatanatyam concert program is called the margam. The traditional solo recital has a typical sequence of items, which we outline here.
The present form of the solo Bharatanatyam recital is said to have been a refinement of the famous Thanjavur quartet brothers Chinnayya, Ponnayya, Vadivelu, and Sivanandam, masters of music and dance during the late 18th century. Throughout its two thousand year history, Bharatanatyam has been an evolving art, not stagnant. The fine-tuning of the Bharatanatyam program by the Thanjavur quartet happening during a period in which both Carnatic music and dance underwent refinements at the hands of various master artists. Various authors describe the motivation for their reform of the Bharatanatyam program differently, for example, to be able to include the various styles of dance composition in a single recital to please the royal court of Thanjavur, or to bring out the nrittaabhinaya, and nritya features of the dance. The facts surrounding its origin may be uncertain, but the arrangement was good enough to have persisted through the present day. Despite the innovative tendencies of modern dancers, recent changes to the recital format have been either minor or transitory.
The solo Bharatanatyam recital has a structure and a progression of items. There are items meant for the beginning of the performance, a main item at its center, and items typically performed after the main item. The names of the typical items, in sequence, are
Item
Aspect
Emphasis
Alarippu
Nritta
Invocation
Jatiswaram
Nritta
Melody, Rhythmic Movement
Shabdam
Nritta and Nritya
Salutation
Varnam
Nritta and Nritya
All Aspects of Dance
Padam
Nritya
Expression, Exposition
Ashtapadi
Nritya
Expression, Exposition
Kirtanam
Nritya
Expression, Devotion
Javali
Nritya
Expression, Exposition
Tillana
Nritta and Nritya
Nritta
Shlokam
Nritya
Devotion
Mangalam
Nritya
Benediction
Before dance practice or a recital, it is traditional for a dancer to make obeisance to the gods, the earth, and the guru. The vandana or namaskaram is the ritual practice of bowing before dancing. At a recital it is usually done backstage. A pushpanjali is the offering of flowers to a deity, as another form of obeisance. Despite a recent tendency of dancers to make a performance item out of a pushpanjali, it is not a traditional dance item and it is not the same as, nor a substitute for, the alarippu.
There is some flexibility in the interpretive items that follow the varnam. Not all recitals have one padam, one ashtapadi, one kirtanam, and one javali. Each of these items is optional, although it’s typical for there to be two or three of them in the recital. It could be, for example, two ashtapadis and a padam. The recital traditionally ends with a shlokam or a mangalam, but usually not with both.
Next, we’ll describe each type of item from the margam briefly.
Alarippu
The first item of a recital, the alarippu is a short and simple item, but is significant as a ritual dance prelude to the performance. Its primary intention is to invoke the blessings of the divine and to offer homage to the audience. It sanctifies the body of the dancer and the performance space.

A connotation of the name alarippu is flowering, suggesting the opening of the body and limbs in preparation for the dance items to follow. It features a progression of movements, beginning with the head and eyes, and then involving more and more of the body, and using more of the performance space. The alarippu is accompanied by the sollukattus, “tham-thi-tha thai-tha-thai”, and percussion in slow, medium, and fast tempos. The duration of the alarippu is about three to five minutes.
Jatiswaram
The second item is also of nritta, or abstract dance, but it is more complex. The dance combines rhythmic sequences of movements in groupings of jatis. It is performed to swara passages in a particular raga (melodic scale) and tala, accompanied by musical instruments. These two elements give the item its name,jatiswaram. At the beginning of the jatiswaram, there is a teermanam accompanied by sollukattus. The rest of the item is danced to swaras.
   
The purpose of the jatiswaram is to create various beautiful forms, purely for artistic pleasure. No mood or sentiment is expressed. There are certain choreographic features that are typical of a jatiswaram – an elegant gait to each side of the stage, for example – that contribute to its unique quality.
Shabdam
Continuing the progression of items towards including more aspects of the dance, the third item, the shabdam, introduces abhinaya, or expressive dance. The music includes lyrics; in a shabdam they are in praise of a deity, a guru, or a patron (usually a king). The song may be devotional, affectionate, or narrative in theme, and may describe the qualities, accomplishments, and deeds of its subject. The dancer interprets the song without elaboration.

The sahitya for a shabdam is usually simple. There are typically two to five stanzas of poetry, with associated korvais of dance; each subsequent one adds more detail on the same theme. There is more detail in the poetry, more movement, and deeper expression of emotion as the item progresses. Sometimes, the first verse is repeated as a refrain and finale, and there may be a prelude danced to sollukattus. The stanzas often end with words of salutation or obeisance, like “salaamure” or “namostute”. Shabdam compositions most often use Misra Chaapu tala and a ragacalled Kambhoji, and a great number of them are in praise of Lord Krishna.
Varnam
The main item of the Bharatanatyam recital is the varnam, which reveals in full the abstract and expressive aspects of the dance, and builds on the rhythmic, melodic, as well as lyrical aspects of the music. The structure of a varnam in dance is similar to that of the musical compositions that are also called varnams. The dance alternates between passages of nritta and nritya, balancing pure dance and expressive dance, and combining both in the final movements. The dancer interprets the music and poetry with great elaboration in both nritta and nritya passages.
For almost every line of the song, there will be teermanams in various tempos, executed to sollukattusnritta passages performed to swara sequences, andabhinaya sequences that expound upon the sahitya of the line. The nritta passages build upon the rhythm of the musical composition and complement its melody. Theabhinaya features exposition of the transient inner feelings, a poetry in dance that expands the poetic theme of the music. As the varnam progresses, the complexity of the teermanams and the abhinaya increases, showing the skill, versatility, and stamina of the dancer. Finally, combining all these aspects, the dancer synchronizes rhythmic footwork of adavu-jatis, hand gestures showing the meaning of the song, and facial expressions bringing out the subtleties of inner emotion.
A proper exposition of a varnam can take forty-five minutes to more than an hour. Because it is such a strenuous item, the varnam is followed by a group of items that are purely expressive, and that aren’t as physically demanding. If there is an intermission, a costume change, or a break in the recital, it usually is right after thevarnam.
Padam

The deepest expressive item of Bharatanatyam is the padam. It is a purely expressional piece, without nritta, and is usually steeped with the sentiment of love and its many manifestations. It ostensibly a love poem, with the dancer taking the role of a devotee or heroine, but the traditional symbolism is that the heroine ornayika represents the human soul longing for the supreme being represented by her beloved or nayaka. Typical narrative devices include the nayika addressing thenayaka, or talking to her sakhi (friend) about her love for the nayaka. The themes of the songs may be the pain of separation from the beloved, a love quarrel, feelings brought about by a dream of the beloved, and so on. The songs used for padamsgive broad scope for the expression of varying shades of emotion, and feature ragasthat match the sentiment of the theme.


Ashtapadi
An ashtapadi is an expressive item like a padam, but executed to particular poetry.Ashtapadi literally means "eight steps", from Sanskrit ashta (eight) and padi (steps), and refers to musical compositions with eight lines, but in Bharatanatyam, it refers12th century compositions by the Indian poet Jayadeva. His Gita Govinda uses the relationship between the gopis (cowgirls) and Lord Krishna to symbolize the eternal love of a devotee for the divine. Jayadeva’s poetry is well suited to abhinaya.
Kirtanam
Another expressive Bharatanatyam item, a kirtanam is characterized by the devotional mood it evokes. Kirtanams use songs that describe the virtues or acts of the gods, or devotional songs composed by great saints. Often, the lyrics are in praise of a particular deity. Kirtanams are usually medium tempo items with some abstract dance elements included for interest.
Javali
javali is an expressive Bharatanatyam number with colloquial lyrics and faster tempos than padams. Javalis usually feature the nayika addressing her beloved, or the divine being, from a human level. The symbolism is not refined to the level of apadam, and the specific types of nayikas featured in javalis differ accordingly.
    
Tillana
A lively item of pure nritta, the tillana is performed to music that shares the same name. Specialized rhythmic syllables are sung to the melody, and are repeated by the singer while the dance presents an elaboration of the music. Each passage begins with graceful body movements, which give way to adavu sequences (korvais) executed in two or three tempos, culminating in scintillating teermanams. The tillanaembodies the Lasya, or lyrical, aspect of nritta in its alluring poses and exquisite patterns of movement. The movements of a tillana are joyous and expansive, giving it a vivacious quality. If the alarippu is the opening of a flower, the tillana is the showering of flowers throughout the performance space.

At the end of the tillana, there is often a small sequence of nritya, in which theabhinaya expresses dedication to a deity or guru.
Shlokam
shlokam is the traditional end to a recital. A shlokam (Sanskrit for verse) orviruttam (Tamil for verse) is the singing of lyrics that are not set to a rhythmic pattern like a song. The interpretation of a shlokam by a dancer and singer is often improvisational. The dancer uses expressions and gestures to bring out its meaning, while the music establishes the mood. The shlokam usually is of a devotional tone, and concludes the recital with a feeling of gratitude and serenity.
Mangalam

                 
A recital that is the last one of the day may end with a mangalam, a short benediction during which the dancer performs the namaskaram, giving thanks and invoking blessings for everyone present. A mangalam usually is no more than a minute or two in duration. The music uses one of the “auspicious” ragas, typically Madhyamavathi.
The Message of Bharatanatyam
We’ve briefly mentioned many features of Bharatanatyam, showing that it has a rich language of expression, but we’ve left an important topic for the end of our description of Bharatanatyam - its motivation. Bharatanatyam can make the entire body of the dancer a vehicle for expression of rhythm, melody, emotion, character, and theme. By fully employing the techniques of Bharatanatyam, and manifesting its many dimensions in the performance, what does the dancer aim to accomplish? What is the purpose of the art?
Before presenting the words of some of Bharatanatyam’s greatest artists, let’s introduce two more terms. Bhava is the art of expression, a key feature of Bharatanatyam. Rasa is the response or feeling induced in the onlookers by thebhava. Although bhava is often equated with facial expressions, it is actually much more. Bhava is the outer manifestation of an inner experience. The inner experience leads to the expression, bhava, and the expression leads to the experience, rasa. The communion between the artist and audience implied by bhava and rasa suggests the potential for a more profound experience than mere entertainment. Whether the full potential of the art is achieved or not in a given presentation depends on the quality of the expression, which depends on the quality of the artist, and on the ability of the audience to perceive and respond.


Regarding the expressive potential of Bharatanaytam, Rukmini Devi wrote, “Bharata Natyam … is at the same time the art of the stage, drama, music, poetry, color, and rhythm. Its keynote is the dance which includes all the arts but whose message is not merely to the senses, and through them to a purely external enjoyment, but is to the soul of the dancer and the perceiver. Because of this message, Bharata Natyam is meant primarily for spiritual expression. It cannot be adequately danced by anyone without reverence for technique and for spiritual life.” The idea that a dancer must enter the spirit of the dance, to experience inwardly what is to be expressed through dance, is echoed in the words of Meenakshisundaram Pillai, Rukmini Devi’s dance guru, who stated, “Bharatanatyam is an art which purifies the mind, speech, and body, and elevates the performer to a realization of the Supreme through the perfect blending of music, rhythm, and emotion.” This statement implies that the art form itself can be a technique for spiritual development. In a similar vein, Balasaraswati said, “Bharatanatyam is an art, which consecrates the body, which is considered to be in itself of no value. The yogi, by controlling his breath and by modifying his body, acquires the halo of sanctity. Even so, the dancer, who dissolves her identity in rhythm and music, makes her body an instrument, at least for the duration of the dance, for the experience and expression of the spirit.” We know these descriptions are not just self-aggrandizing words, because so many who witnessed performances by Rukmini Devi and by Balasaraswati felt the presence of something beyond the form of the dancer. When Balasaraswati portrayed Krishna, there were those who felt that Krishna was really there. When Rukmini Devi danced as Parvati, many observers had the experience of a divine presence.
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Learning Bharatanatyam
Bharatanatyam is an art form with considerable depth and scope. One can devote a lifetime to becoming expert at it. It is rare that students in the West have such time to dedicate to learning the arts, especially outside a university setting. While it’s possible to learn about Bharatanatyam at some universities, their curricula aren’t designed to create dancers. Rangashree aims to create dancers.
       
The first section of this page describes the progression of a Bharatanatyam dance student at Rangashree. Developing dancers go through various stages or milestones, which are
  • beginners or children,
  • intermediates,
  • advanced students,
  • the arangetram,
  • post arangetram students, and
  • experts doing further study.
This section will help you understand what to expect at these stages, and show you how far you can go.Progression
This will be a brief overview of the different stages in the development of a dancer, as approached at Rangashree. It's not a complete description of the training curriculum. It's just to give an idea of what a student can expect at various stages.
Training for Bharatanatyam can begin after a child is five years old. Any adult with the requisite physical flexibility and stamina can take it up too. Let's see what follows.
Beginners or Children

http://l.yimg.com/www.flickr.com/images/spaceball.gif
http://l.yimg.com/www.flickr.com/images/spaceball.gif
The early stages of training involve learning the basic steps, called adavus, and movements of the dance. These elements are the building blocks for subsequent, more advanced, sequences of dance. The exercises condition the body for the unique postures of Bharatanatyam. They also develop the student's sense of rhythm. Having a fit and flexible physique allows a student to learn quickly; otherwise the fitness and flexibility will have to be developed over time.
Students also learn eye movements, which are done in synchronization with body movements in the dance.
At this stage, students also learn the names of hand gestures called hastas, which are an important feature of Bharatanatyam. They comprise the descriptive language of the dance. Students also learn about the history of Bharatanatyam, the musical instruments used, and other related topics.
Beginning students of Bharatanatyam also learn folk dances. The folk dances are group dances, and complement the classical training, which is for solo dancing at this stage. They teach the students coordination with other dancers. They also let students get a taste of performing on stage.
Intermediates
At the intermediate stage, students learn more advanced steps and complicated patterns of movement. They also learn the names of facial expressions, which are a distinctive feature of Bharatanatyam.


The students begin learning some basic dance compositions. The choreography is simple, and there isn't much expressive content. Examples of these items are thealarippu and jatiswaram. These items may be performed on stage at student shows and Rangashree's annual function.
Folk dance training continues, and includes more complex choreography. By performing folk dances at different occasions during the year, students get comfortable about being on stage.
Advanced Students
These students learn the remaining dance compositions that make up the repertoire of a full Bharatanatyam recital. Although they may only learn a single instance of some types of items, the repertoire covers all the features of the dance. It includes rhythmic dance, emotional expression, and variety. The items they practice include the shabdamvarnampadamkirtanamashtapadijavalitillana, and shlokam.
Advanced students perform Bharatanatyam on stage at various times during the year, to gain experience. They are in preparation for the arangetram, which marks their coming of age as dancers. They need to develop proficiency in all aspects of the dance.
Folk dance training and performing continues, since it's good experience (and fun).
The Arangetram
This milestone in the career of a Bharatanatyam dancer is often misunderstood as the graduation event that ends the training of the dancer. It is actually a beginning of the dancer's career as a performer, and there's no end to the training afterwards. The word arangetram translates as climbing onto (etram) the stage (arangam).
     
The arangetram is marked by a solo recital by the new dancer, attended by the teacher, mentors, and family elders. It's up to the dancer as to how large a function it is, and who else attends. The trend in recent years to extravagant arangetramfunctions is unfortunate, since the lavish arrangements often distract attention from the dance performance. The real point of the arangetram is for the dancer to deliver his or her first full solo performance, and receive the blessings of the teacher and other elders for a fruitful dance career. There have been top dancers in Bharatanatyam whose arangetram performances were attended by only a handful of people.
By the time of the arangetram, the dancer will have learned all the elements of the dance, and demonstrates this knowledge and ability in the arangetram recital.
Post Arangetram Students
After the arangetram, the dancer can mature and develop further as a performer. More compositions can be learned, expanding the repertoire that the dancer can perform. By performing regularly, the dancer becomes aware of his or her strengths and weaknesses, and can work with the teacher to improve the weak areas, as well as to choreograph items that capitalize on the strong areas.
Note that dancers who studied elsewhere and completed the arangetram may still have basic elements to learn to complete their training.
A seasoned performer can venture into choreographing new items. A teacher can be helpful in this process, bringing experience of what works and what doesn't.
Experienced dancers can also begin teaching others. It's a good way to solidify one's own skills.
Experts Doing Further Study
A dancer who has completed all the training that one teacher can offer, who has gained experience performing, and perhaps has even started teaching, can benefit from further studies. Working with other artists can provide fresh ideas and perspectives. Training under other teachers can broaden the dancer's skills or add specific new abilities. If it hasn't happened already by this stage, the dancer may also benefit from traveling to India or practicing there for some time.
By this point, the dancer is charting his or her own course as an artist. It is still important to continue to grow, and every new experience has the potential to inform the dancer's artistic expression. All avenues for expression are now open to the dancer - performing, composing, teaching, and perhaps even broadening the scope of the dance.
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Getting the Most Out of Your Training
The classical dances of India were maintained for centuries using a system of training that fit the culture of that time and place. Today, society is different, even in India. The old systems of training don't fit with modern lifestyles. Perhaps by being aware of some key aspects of the traditional approach to training, we can build on the opportunities that are available today.

Learning Environment
In India, traditional knowledge was passed from teachers to disciples using a system called the gurukul. The literal meaning of gurukul is "the guru's family". Students would live with the teacher for extended periods, during which they not only learned skills, but also imbibed the personal qualities or spirit of the guru. Thus they would practice their arts with the same intention as the guru. This system preserved the spirit of Indian arts and culture for millennia.
In the last few hundred years, the gurukul system has all but disappeared. Fortunately, at least in India, the idea that a student of classical arts must dedicate a major part of his or her life to properly learn the art does remain. This is seen most often with classical music. There are some examples from the world of dance, as well.



Bibliography
Sambamoorti, P., “The Musical Content of Bharata Natyam.” Classical and Folk Dances of India. Bombay: Marg Publications, 1963.
Rukmini Devi, “The Spiritual Background of Bharata Natyam.” Classical and Folk Dances of India. Bombay: Marg Publications, 1963.
Iyer, E. Krishna, “A Note on the Repertory from Alaripu to Tillana.” Classical and Folk Dances of India. Bombay: Marg Publications, 1963.
Kothari, Sunil, Bharata Natyam. Mumbai: Marg Publications, 2000.
Rukmini Devi Arundale Birth Centenary Volume. Chennai: The Kalakshetra Foundation, 2004
Devi, Ragini, Dance Dialects of India. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2002.
Rani, Kamala, Essence of Nattuvangam, Bharatanatyam Guide Book. Chennai: Kamala Rani, 1997.
Rani, Kamala, Nattuvangam Book-1 100 Roopaka Thalam Theermanams. Chennai: Kamala Rani, 1997.
Rani, Kamala, Nattuvangam Book-2 101 Aadhi Thalam Theermanams. Chennai: Kamala Rani, 1997.
Balasaraswati, T., Translation of her Speech on Bharata Natyam. Madras: Presidential Address, Tamil Isai Sangam Conference, 1975

             
Asamyukta Hasta or Single Hand Gesture

Asamyukta hastas are done using single hand. The Natyshastra mentions about 28 Mudras ie upto Trishula Mudra. There are four new mudra added to this list ie Kataka, Vyagraha, Ardhasuchi and Palli. These Hand Gestures are a Part of Angika Abhinaya. I shall be explaining each of these Mudras with reference to the shlokas of Abhinayadarpana.

      



  Following are the list of all the Single hand Gesture.
1.   Pataka
2.   Tripataka
3.   Ardhapataka
4.   Kartarimukha
5.   Mayura
6.   Ardhachandra
7.   Arala
8.   Shukatunda
9.   Mushthi
10.             Shikhara
11.             Kapitta
12.             Katakamukha
13.             Suchi
14.             Chandrakala
15.             Padmakosha
16.             Sarpashirsha
17.             Mrigashirsha
18.             Simhamukha
19.             Kangula
20.             Alapadma
21.             Chatura
22.             Bhramara
23.             Hamsasye
24.             Hansapakshika
25.             Sandamsha
26.             Mukula
27.             Tamrachuda
28.             Trishula
29.             Ardhasuchi
30.             Vyagraha
31.             Palli
32.             Kataka


Samayukta Hastas or Double Hand Gestures in Bharatanatyam


Samyukta Hastas are also called as Double hand gestures or Combined hand gestures. Unlike Asamyukta hastas, these gestures require use of both the palms to convey the message or a particular meaning. For example the Anjali Mudra is a simple gesture where both the palms are joined to mean a Namskara or to imply salutations. I have also put some images of double hand gestures. Each gestures has its own uses which is termed as Viniyoga. I am writing a separate post on each of these mudras.
1. Anjali
2. Kapota
3. Karkata
4. Swastika
5. Dola


6. Pushpaputa
7. Utsanga
8. Shivalinga
9. Kataka-vardhana
10. Kartari-swastika
11. Shakata
12. Shankha
13. Chakra
14. Pasha
15. Kilaka
16. Samputa
17. Matsya
18. Kurma
19. Varaha




20. Garuda
21. Nagabandha
22. Khatava
23. Bhairunda
24. Avahitta