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Wednesday, May 27, 2020

Psychopath vs Sociopath - What's The Difference?

Most experts believe psychopaths and sociopaths share a similar set of traits. People like this have a poor inner sense of right and wrong. They also can’t seem to understand or share another person’s feelings. But there are some differences, too.

Psychopathy and sociopathy are different cultural labels applied to the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder. Up to 3 per cent of the population may qualify for a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder. This disorder is more common among males and mostly seen in people with an alcohol or substance abuse problem, or in forensic settings such as prisons. Psychopaths tend to be more manipulative, can be seen by others as more charming, lead a semblance of a normal life, and minimize risk in criminal activities. Sociopaths tend to be more erratic, rage-prone, and unable to lead as much of a normal life. When sociopaths engage in criminal activity, they tend to do so in a reckless manner without regard to consequences.

Traits of a Psychopath

Psychology researchers generally believe that psychopaths tend to be born — it’s likely a genetic predisposition — while sociopaths tend to be made by their environment. (Which is not to say that psychopaths may not also suffer from some sort of childhood trauma.) Psychopathy might be related to physiological brain differences. Research has shown psychopaths have underdeveloped components of the brain commonly thought to be responsible for emotion regulation and impulse control.
Psychopaths, in general, have a hard time forming real emotional attachments with others. Instead, they form artificial, shallow relationships designed to be manipulated in a way that most benefits the psychopath. People are seen as pawns to be used to forward the psychopath’s goals. Psychopaths rarely feel guilt regarding any of their behaviours, no matter how much they hurt others.
But psychopaths can often be seen by others as being charming and trustworthy, holding steady, normal jobs. Some even have families and seemingly-loving relationships with a partner. While they tend to be well-educated, they may also have learned a great deal on their own.
When a psychopath engages in criminal behaviour, they tend to do so in a way that minimizes risk to themselves. They will carefully plan a criminal activity to ensure they don’t get caught, having contingency plans in place for every possibility.
Psychopath Pop Culture Examples: Dexter, Anton Chigurh in No Country for Old Men, Henry in Henry: Portrait of a Serial Killer, Patrick Bateman in American Psycho

Traits of a Sociopath

Researchers tend to believe that sociopathy is the result of environmental factors, such as a child or teen’s upbringing in a very negative household that resulted in physical abuse, emotional abuse, or childhood trauma.
Sociopaths, in general, tend to be more impulsive and erratic in their behaviour than their psychopath counterparts. While also having difficulties in forming attachments to others, some sociopaths may be able to form an attachment to a like-minded group or person. Unlike psychopaths, most sociopaths don’t hold down long-term jobs or present much of normal family life to the outside world.
When a sociopath engages in criminal behaviour, they may do so in an impulsive and largely unplanned manner, with little regard for the risks or consequences of their actions. They may become agitated and angered easily, sometimes resulting in violent outbursts. These kinds of behaviours increase sociopath’s chances of being apprehended.
Sociopath Pop Culture Examples: The Joker in The Dark Knight, JD in Heathers, Alex Delarge in A Clockwork Orange

Who is More Dangerous?

Both psychopaths and sociopaths present risks to society, because they will often try and live a normal life while coping with their disorder. But psychopathy is likely the more dangerous disorder because they experience a lot less guilt connected to their actions.
A psychopath also has a greater ability to dissociate from their actions. Without emotional involvement, any pain that others suffer is meaningless to a psychopath. Many famous serial killers have been psychopaths.
Not all people we’d call a psychopath or sociopath are violent. Violence is not a necessary ingredient (nor is it for a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder) — but it is often present.

Clues to a Psychopath or Sociopath in Childhood

Clues to psychopathy and sociopathy are usually available in childhood. Most people who can later be diagnosed with sociopathy or psychopathy have had a pattern of behaviour where they violate the basic rights or safety of others. They often break the rules (or even laws) and societal norms as a child, too.
Psychologists call these kinds of childhood behaviours a  Conduct disorder.
 Conduct disorders involve four categories of problem behaviour:
  • Aggression to people and animals
  • Destruction of property
  • Deceitfulness or theft
  • Serious violations of rules or laws
If you recognize these symptoms in a child or young teen, they’re at greater risk for antisocial personality disorder.

What makes a serial serial Murderer? ஒரு சீரியல் கொலையாளி எப்படி உருவெடுக்கிறான்?

It is intrinsic to the human survival mechanism that we have this capacity to repeatedly kill. Killers are anachronisms whose primal instincts are not being moderated by the more intellectual parts of our brain.

Perhaps it’s not that serial killers are made, but that the majority of us are unmade, by good parenting and socialization. What remains behind is these un-fully-socialized beings with this capacity to attack and kill. And often that capacity is grafted onto a sexual impulse – aggression sexualized at puberty.

Many serial killers are survivors of early childhood trauma of some kind – physical or sexual abuse, family dysfunction, emotionally distant or absent parents. Trauma is the single recurring theme in the biographies of most killers.

­Intense study in the field of serial murder has resulted in two ways of classifying serial killers: one based on motive and one based on organizational and social patterns. The motive method is called Holmes typology, for Ronald M. and Stephen T. Holmes, authors of numerous textbooks on serial murder and violent crime. Not every serial killer falls into a single type, and many are more than one type. Neither of these classifications explains what might actually lead someone to become a serial killer (more on this later). There is not enough scientific data upon which to base these classifications, either -- they are based on anecdotal and interview data. Critics of the Holmes typology point to this as a flaw, but many investigators still find the method useful when studying serial murder.

­Acc­ording to Holmes typology, serial killers, can be act-focused (who kill quickly), or process-focused (who kill slowly). For act-focused killers, killing is simply about the act itself. Within this group, there are two different types: the visionary and the missionary. The visionary murders because he hears voices or has visions that direct him to do so. The missionary murders because he believes that he is meant to get rid of a particular group of people.

What exactly is psychopathy?

The number one trait of a psychopath is a lack of empathy. Others are a tendency to lie, a need for thrills – psychopaths become bored very quickly – and narcissism. But the lack of empathy is the biggest thing.

One common explanation is that psychopaths experience some kind of trauma in early childhood – perhaps as early as their infant state – and as a consequence suppress their emotional response. They never learn the appropriate responses to trauma, and never develop other emotions, which is why they find it difficult to empathize with others.

They grow up not knowing how to “feel”, and learn instead how to manifest what they think are emotions or the correct appearances of emotion. They know the “mask” they should wear.

In the case of serial killers, that’s why there are individuals who can raise a family, be what most people would consider a good spouse and parent, and at the same time have secret second lives where they go out and kill strangers. They can compartmentalize.


Friday, May 22, 2020


“Kafkaesque” describes as the Oxford Dictionaries would put it, “oppressive or nightmarish qualities,” or as Merriam-Webster suggests, “having a nightmarishly complex, bizarre, or illogical quality.

What’s Kafkaesque is when you enter a surreal world in which all your control patterns, all your plans, the whole way in which you have configured your own behaviour, begins to fall to pieces, when you find yourself against a force that does not lend itself to the way you perceive the world. You don’t give up, you don’t lie down and die. What you do is a struggle against this with all of your equipment, with whatever you have. But of course, you don’t stand a chance. That’s Kafkaesque.

According to Wikipedia, the term Kafkaesque is “an eponym used to describe concepts, situations, and ideas which are reminiscent of the literary work of the Austro-Hungarian writer Franz Kafka,” and in 2010, people pretty much think they can apply the term to just about anything.

Is the over-usage a symptom of our strange times, or are people just too lazy to search for a better term?  Maybe these ten examples will help figure that out.
1.  Estate tax.  Nothing makes me think of The Trial quite like estate tax.
2.  Zombies. They can totally be Kafkaesque: “” What I wake up into is one of the worst days any human should wake up to. It’s a Kafka-esque nightmare. I wanted to make it as truthful and as real to me as possible.”
3.  Television shows that everybody seems to be talking about, like Breaking Bad.
4.  Politics in India.
5. No-fly and watch lists, are, yup, you guessed it.
6. “Dilbert lives in a Kafkaesque world of bureaucracy.”
7.  Would you date a person whose writing style on a dating website registers as Kafkaesque?
8.  Wondering if Asian women are attracted to Western men.
9.  All of these movies.
10. Nobel laureate, Mario Vargas Llosa, describing the commute from  New Jersey to New York during rush hour: “It’s very nice. But not if you take the train at 5 or 6 o’clock. It can be a Kafkaesque commute.”

Jaffna Cuisine

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Art of Seduction by Robert Greene Book(Summary Notes )

Summary Notes

“Seduction is a game of psychology, not beauty, and it is within the grasp of any person to become a master at the game. All that is required is that you look at the world differently, through the eyes of a seducer.”

“What will seduce a person is an effort we expend on their behalf, showing how much we care, how much they are worth.”

“Seducers take pleasure in performing and are not weighed down by their identity, or by some need to be themselves, or to be natural.”

“Every seduction has two elements that you must analyze and understand: first, yourself and what is seductive about you; and second, your target and the actions that will penetrate their defences and create surrender.”

The Seductive Character

Successful seduction starts with who you are and the type of seductive energy you express. It requires creating yourself, or refining yourself, in one of the seducer categories.

  • Sirens have an abundance of sexual energy and know-how to use it.
  • They lure in their targets, like the sirens of Odysseus, through their image and teases. Crafting the perfect seductive pose for their target.
  • Rakes insatiably adore the opposite sex, and their desire is infectious.
  • Unlike the normal, cautious male, the Rake is delightfully unrestrained, a slave to his love of women. There is the added lure of his reputation: so many women have succumbed to him, there has to be a reason.
  • Remember: it is the form that matters, not the content. The less your targets focus on what you say, and the more on how it makes them feel, the more seductive your effect. Give your words a lofty, spiritual, literary flavour the better to insinuate desire in your unwitting victims.
  • To play the Rake, the most obvious requirement is the ability to let yourself go, to draw a woman into the kind of purely sensual moment in which past and future lose meaning. You must be able to abandon yourself to the moment.
  • If no obstacles face you, you must create them. Seduction requires obstacle.
  • Ideal Lovers have an aesthetic sensibility that they apply to romance.
  • Casanova was perhaps the most successful seducer in history; few women could resist him. His method was simple: on meeting a woman, he would study her, go along with her moods, find out what was missing in her life, and provide it. He made himself the Ideal Lover.
  • But appeal to their better selves, to a higher standard of beauty, and they will hardly notice that they have been seduced. Make them feel elevated, lofty, spiritual, and your power over them will be limitless.
  • Talleyrand simply held up a mirror to Napoleon and let him glimpse that possibility. People are always vulnerable to insinuations like this, which stroke their vanity almost everyone’s a weak spot. Hint at something for them to aspire to, reveal your faith in some untapped potential you see in them, and you will soon have them eating out of your hand.
  • Dandies like to play with their image, creating a striking and androgynous allure.
  • Most of us feel trapped within the limited roles that the world expects us to play. We are instantly attracted to those who are more fluid, more ambiguous than we are— those who create their own persona. Dandies excite us because they cannot be categorized, and hint at a freedom we want for ourselves.
  • Dandies seduce socially as well as sexually; groups form around them, their style is wildly imitated, an entire court or crowd will fall in love with them. In adapting the Dandy character for your own purposes, remember that the Dandy is by nature a rare and beautiful flower. Be different in ways that are both striking and aesthetic, never vulgar; poke fun at current trends and styles, go in a novel direction, and be supremely uninterested in what anyone else is doing. Most people are insecure; they will wonder what you are up to, and slowly they will come to admire and imitate you because you express yourself with total confidence.
  • Naturals are spontaneous and open.
  • Coquettes are self-sufficient, with a fascinating cool at their core.
  • Coquettes seem totally self-sufficient: they do not need you, they seem to say, and their narcissism proves devilishly attractive.
  • People are inherently perverse. An easy conquest has a lower value than a difficult one; we are only really excited by what is denied us, by what we cannot possess in full. Your greatest power in seduction is your ability to turn away, to make others come after you, delaying their satisfaction.
  • To understand the peculiar power of the Coquette, you must first understand a critical property of love and desire: the more obviously you pursue a person, the more likely you are to chase them away.
  • Self-esteem is critical in seduction. (Your attitude toward yourself is read by the other person in subtle and unconscious ways.) Low self-esteem repels, confidence and self-sufficiency attract. The less you seem to need other people, the more likely others will be drawn to you.
  • Charmers want and know how to please— they are social creatures.
  • Charmers do not argue or fight, complain, or pester— what could be more seductive?
  • First, they don’t talk much about themselves, which heightens their mystery and disguises their limitations. Second, they seem to be interested in us, and their interest is so delightfully focused that we relax and open up to them. Finally, Charmers are pleasant to be around. They have none of most people’s ugly qualities— nagging, complaining, self-assertion.
  • Charismatics have unusual confidence in themselves.
  • Learn to create the charismatic illusion by radiating intensity while remaining detached.
  • Creating the air of charisma:
  • Purpose. If people believe you have a plan, that you know where you are going, they will follow you instinctively The direction does not matter: pick a cause, an idea, a vision and show that you will not sway from your goal. Mystery. The mystery lies at charisma’s heart, but it is a particular kind of mystery— a mystery expressed by contradiction, by having conflicting traits. Saintliness. Most of us must compromise constantly to survive; saints do not. They must live out their ideals without caring about the consequences. The saintly effect bestows charisma. Eloquence. A Charismatic relies on the power of words. Theatricality. A Charismatic is larger than life, has an extra presence. Uninhibitedness. Most people are repressed and have little access to their unconscious— a problem that creates opportunities for the Charismatic, who can become a kind of screen on which others project their secret fantasies and longings. Fervency. You need to believe in something, and to believe in it strongly enough for it to animate all your gestures and make your eyes light up. Vulnerability. Charismatics display a need for love and affection.Adventurousness. Charismatics are unconventional. Magnetism. If any physical attribute is crucial in seduction, it is the eyes. They reveal excitement, tension, detachment, without a word being spoken.
  • People do not want to hear that your power comes from years of effort or discipline. They prefer to think that it comes from your personality, your character, something you were born with.
  • Stars are ethereal and envelop themselves in mystery.
  • People are hopelessly susceptible to myth, so make yourself the hero of a great drama. And keep your distance— let people identify with you without being able to touch you. They can only watch and dream.
  • First, you must have such a large presence that you can fill your target’s mind the way a close-up fills the screen.
  • Second, cultivate a blank, mysterious face, the centre that radiates Stars.
  • The Anti-Seducer: those who repel
  • Anti-Seducers come in many shapes and kinds, but almost all of them share a single attribute, the source of their repellence: insecurity.
  • It is critical to recognize anti-seductive qualities not only in others but also in ourselves. Almost all of us have one or two of the Anti-Seducer’s qualities latent in our character, and to the extent that we can consciously root them out, we become more seductive.
  • The Brute: Who has no patience, who wants to skip the seduction, who offends with egotism.
  • The Suffocation: Those who cling incessantly to you, love you before you know who they are, or who make themselves a doormat to you in their obsession.
  • The Moralizer: Who wants you to bend to their standard.
  • The Tightwad: Cheapness displays more insecurity beyond money.
  • The Bumbler: The awkward speaker, who makes others feel awkward too.
  • The Windbag: Who won’t shut up.
  • The Reactor: Who is terrified to have their ego damaged.
  • The Vulgarian: Who ignores the rules of the game, presents a garish image, does not play the game and yet expects to win.
  • It is rather because wordless communication (through clothes, gestures, actions) is the most pleasurable, exciting, and seductive form of language.

The 18 Types of Seducer Victims

Never try to seduce your own type.

People are constantly giving out signals of what they lack, you have to tune in to these signals and interpret their type based on them.

  1. The Reformed Rake or Siren: They desperately long to escape whatever corralled them in, what is preventing them from being their normal freely sexual self.
  2. The Disappointed Dreamer: They long for adventure, but are stuck in a boring lifestyle.
  3. The Pampered Royal: The long to be swept off their feet by a prince charming and let them live out their fantasy of being pampered and treated like royalty.
  4. The New Prude: excessively concerned with their outward appearance, underneath they want to release, but they fear judgement. They must feel like they’re sharing some secret with you…
  5. The Crushed Star: No longer the centre of attention, they long to have that sense of being adored back.
  6. The Novice: They want to at least feel that you’re somewhat “young” too, but are also excited by the possibility of being introduced to a new, darker world…
  7. The Conquerer: You must give them an obstacle to overcome, a mission, a goal.
  8. The Exotic Fetishist: They want novelty, new experiences, things on the edge, you must position yourself as something exotic.
  9. The Drama Queen: They long for drama in their lives, so you’ll need to help create it in order to keep them rapt.
  10. The Professor: They analyze and think deeply about everything, but long to be overwhelmed by a more free spirit who can help them release their mental barrier.
  11. The Beauty: Used to being appreciated, you must focus on the less complimented features like her intellect or wit.
  12. The Aging Baby: Still immature and wanting a supportive parent, you must enable their childish desires while still occasionally reeling them in.
  13. The Rescuer: They long to feel like they’re saving someone from themselves, you must make them feel that they can “save” you from something and they will become obsessed. Let her be your maternal protector.
  14. The Roué: Experienced in life, they desire to educate someone more naive.
  15. The Idol Worshipper: You must become their object of worship that provides the meaning in life that they seek.
  16. The Sensualist: Driven by their senses, you must overwhelm their site, smell, and touch, to fully draw them in.
  17. The Lonely Leader: Act as their equal or superior, the kind of relationship they rarely have.
  18. The Floating Gender: Float with them.

Seduction Phase 1: Separation, Stirring Interest and Desire

  1. Choosing the right victim
  2. The right victims are those for whom you can fill a void, who see in you something exotic.
  3. To leave people who are inaccessible to you alone is a wise path; you cannot seduce everyone.
  4. Never rush into the waiting arms of the first person who seems to like you. That is not seduction but insecurity.
  5. People who are outwardly distant or shy are often better targets than extroverts. They are dying to be drawn out, and still waters run deep.
  6. On the other hand, you should generally avoid people who are preoccupied with business or work— seduction demands attention, and busy people have too little space in their minds for you to occupy.
  7. Creating a False Sense of Security, Approach Indirectly
  8. Once you have chosen the right victim, you must get his or her attention and stir desire. To move from friendship to love can win success without calling attention to itself as a manoeuvre.
  9. First, your friendly conversations with your targets will bring you valuable information about their characters, their tastes, their weaknesses, the childhood yearnings that govern their adult behaviour.
  10. Second, by spending time with your targets you can make them comfortable with you.
  11. Then, surprise their expectations with an errant touch or suggestion, make them now interested.
  12. There is nothing more effective in seduction than making the seduced think that they are the ones doing the seducing.
  13. The first move to master is simple: once you have chosen the right person, you must make the target come to you.
  14. Too much attention early on will actually just suggest insecurity and raise doubts as to your motives. Worst of all, it gives your targets no room for imagination. Take a step back; let the thoughts you are provoking come to them as if they were their own.
  15. In all areas of life, you should never give the impression that you are angling for something— that will raise a resistance that you will never lower. Learn to approach people from the side.
  16. Send Mixed Signals
  17. What is obvious and striking may attract their attention at first, but that attention is often short-lived; in the long run, ambiguity is much more potent. Most of us are much too obvious —instead, be hard to figure out.
  18. To deepen their interest, you must hint at a complexity that cannot be grasped in a week or two.
  19. If you have a sweet face and an innocent air, let out hints of something dark, even vaguely cruel in your character.
  20. Appear to Be an Object of Desire: Create Triangles
  21. You see a man alone, whom nobody talks to for any length of time, and who is wandering around without company; isn’t there a kind of self-fulfilling isolation about him? Why is he alone, why is he avoided? There has to be a reason.
  22. When people’s vanity is at risk, you can make them do whatever you want. According to Stendhal, if there is a woman you are interested in, pay attention to her sister. That will stir a triangular desire.
  23. Men who believe that a rakish reputation will make women fear or distrust them, and should be played down, are quite wrong. On the contrary, it makes them more attractive.
  24. Create a need, stir anxiety and discontent
  25. People are always susceptible to being seduced, because in fact everyone lacks a sense of completeness, feels something missing deep inside. Bring their doubts and anxieties to the surface and they can be led and lured to follow you.
  26. Make people anxious about the future, make them depressed, make them question their identity, make them sense the boredom that gnaws at their life. The ground is prepared. The seeds of seduction can be sown.
  27. Master the Art of Insinuation
  28. There is no known defence, however, against insinuation— the art of planting ideas in people’s minds by dropping elusive hints that take root days later, even appearing to them as their own idea. Make everything suggestive.
  29. Enter Their Spirit
  30. Play by their rules, enjoy what they enjoy, adapt yourself to their moods. In doing so you will stroke their deep-rooted narcissism and lower their defences.
  31. Create Temptation
  32. As the serpent tempted Eve with the promise of forbidden knowledge, you must awaken a desire in your targets that they cannot control. Find that weakness of theirs, that fantasy that has yet to be realized, and hint that you can lead them toward it.
  33. Find that childhood insecurity, that lack in their life, and you hold the key to tempting them. Their weakness may be greed, vanity, boredom, some deeply repressed desire, a hunger for forbidden fruit. They signal it in little details that elude their conscious control: their style of clothing, an offhand comment.

Phase 2: Lead Astray — Creating Pleasure and Confusion

  1. Keep Them In Suspense, what comes next?
  2. Behave in a way that leaves them wondering, What are you up to? Doing something they do not expect from you will give them a delightful sense of spontaneity— they will not be able to foresee what comes next.
  3. There are all kinds of calculated surprises you can spring on your victims— sending a letter from out of the blue, showing up unexpectedly, taking them to a place they have never been. But best of all are surprises that reveal something new about your character.
  4. Reliability is fine for drawing people in, but stay reliable and you stay a bore. Dogs are reliable, a seducer is not.
  5. Use the Demonic Power of Words to Sow Confusion
  6. Inflame people’s emotions with loaded phrases, flatter them, comfort their insecurities, envelop them in fantasies, sweet words, and promises, and not only will they listen to you, but they will also lose their Will to resist you.
  7. A woman was beautiful, yet lacked confidence in her own wit and intelligence? He made sure to say that he was bewitched not by her beauty but by her mind.
  8. Pay Attention to Detail
  9. Poeticize Your Presence
  10. You can be dangerous, naughty, even somewhat vulgar, depending on the tastes of your victim. But never be ordinary or limited. In poetry (as opposed to reality), anything is possible.
  11. The only thing that cannot be idealized is mediocrity, but there is nothing seductive about mediocrity. There is no possible way to seduce without creating some kind of fantasy and poeticization.
  12. Disarm Through Strategic Weakness and Vulnerability
  13. The best way to cover your tracks is to make the other person feel superior and stronger. If you seem to be weak, vulnerable, enthralled by the other person, and unable to control yourself, you will make your actions look more natural, less calculated.
  14. Remember: what is natural to your character is inherently seductive. A person’s vulnerability, what they seem to be unable to control, is often what is most seductive about them.
  15. A woman, for instance, maybe attracted by a man’s strength and self-confidence, but too much of it can create fear, seeming unnatural, even ugly.
  16. Confuse Desire and Reality— The Perfect Illusion
  17. Your task as a seducer is to bring some flesh and blood into someone’s fantasy life by embodying a fantasy figure or creating a scenario resembling that person’s dreams.
  18. Isolate the Victim
  19. Separate them from their environment physically, emotionally, and mentally, so they can become further engrossed with you.

Phase 3: The Precipice, deepening the effect through extreme measures

  1. Prove Yourself
  2. Do not worry about looking foolish or making a mistake— any kind of deed that is self-sacrificing and for your targets’ sake will so overwhelm their emotions, they won’t notice anything else.
  3. Cleverly lead your victim into a crisis, a moment of danger, or indirectly put them in an uncomfortable position, and you can play the rescuer, the gallant knight.
  4. Effect a Regression
  5. Stir Up the Transgressive and Taboo
  6. Making your targets feel that you are leading them past either kind of limit is immensely seductive. People yearn to explore their dark side.
  7. But we are strange animals: the moment any kind of limit is imposed, physically or psychologically, we are instantly curious. A part of us wants to go beyond that limit, to explore what is forbidden.
  8. The most blatant way to do this is to engage in behaviour that gives you a dark and forbidden aura. Theoretically, you are someone to avoid; in fact, you are too seductive to resist.
  9. Use Spiritual Lures
  10. Everyone has doubts and insecurities —about their body, their self-worth, their sexuality. If your seduction appeals exclusively to the physical, you will stir up these doubts and make your targets self-conscious. Instead, lure them out of their insecurities by making them focus on something sublime and spiritual: a religious experience, a lofty work of art, the occult.
  11. Mix Pleasure with Pain
  12. Lure them in with focused attention, then change direction, appearing suddenly uninterested. Make them feel guilty and insecure. Even instigate a breakup, subjecting them to an emptiness and pain that will give you room to manoeuvre
  13. Your seduction should never follow a simple course upward toward pleasure and harmony. The climax will come too soon, and the pleasure will be weak. What makes us intensely appreciate something is the previous suffering.
  14. Without tension, without anxiety and suspense, there can be no feeling of release, of true pleasure and joy. It is your task to create that tension in the target, to stimulate feelings of anxiety, to lead them to and fro, so that the culmination of the seduction has real weight and intensity. So rid yourself of your nasty habit of avoiding conflict, which is in any case unnatural. You are most often nice not out of your own inner goodness but out of fear of displeasing, out of insecurity.

Phase 4: Move in for the kill

  1. Give Them Space to Fall— The Pursuer Is Pursued
  2. Stir the pot by seeming interested in someone else. Make none of this explicit; let them only sense it and their imagination will do the rest, creating the doubt you desire.
  3. Understand: a person’s willpower is directly linked to their libido, their erotic desire. When your victims are passively waiting for you, their erotic level is low. When they turn pursuer, getting involved in the process, brimming with tension and anxiety, the temperature is raised.
  4. Use Physical Lures
  5. While your cool, nonchalant air is calming their minds and lowering their inhibitions, your glances, voice, and bearing— oozing sex and desire— are getting under their skin, agitating their senses and raising their temperature.
  6. Second, be alert to the signs of physical excitation. Blushing, trembling of the voice, tears, unusually forceful laughter, relaxing movements of the body (any kind of involuntary mirroring, their gestures imitating yours), a revealing slip of the tongue— these are signs that the victim is slipping into the moment and pressure is to be applied.
  7. Master the Art of the Bold Move
  8. One person must go on the offensive, and it is you.
  9. Beware the Aftereffects
  10. Stir the pot, even if that means a return to inflicting pain and pulling back. Never rely on your physical charms; even beauty loses its appeal with repeated exposure. Only strategy and effort will fight off inertia
  11. Maintain your mystery and lightness
  12. Avoid the slow burnout, Once you feel disenchanted and know it is over, ends it quickly, without apology. Once you are truly disenchanted, there is no going back, so don’t hang on out of false pity. It is more compassionate to make a clean break. If that seems inappropriate or too ugly, then deliberately disenchant the victim with anti-seductive behaviour.   

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Do You Know People With Less Give More

In a series of experiments, a team of researchers at UC Berkeley found that people of lower socioeconomic status are actually more altruistic than those higher on the economic ladder. 

That finding is consistent with national survey results showing that lower-income people donate a greater percentage of their income to charity than upper-income people do.

A second experiment built on this finding, suggesting that there’s something about the specific psychological experience of having less that induces people to give more. Piff and his colleagues, including Greater Good Science Center Faculty Dacher Keltner, had participants engage in an exercise that made them feel like they were either of higher or lower status. Then the participants had to say how they thought people should divide up their annual income—on food, recreation, charitable donations, or other items.

In one of these experiments, the researchers, led by doctoral student Paul Piff, gave participants the opportunity to share $10 with an anonymous stranger. A few days earlier, the participants had all filled out a questionnaire in which they reported their socioeconomic status. The results showed that people who had placed themselves lower on the social scale were actually more generous than upper-class participants were. 

Those made to feel lower on the social totem pole said that a higher percentage should be spent on charity.

So what is it about being less well-off that causes people to be more generous?

In other experiments, the researchers found evidence that lower-class participants’ greater tendency to perform kind, helpful—or “pro-social”—behaviour could be explained by their greater concern for egalitarian values and the well-being of other people, and their stronger feelings of compassion for others.

However, the researchers also found that when they induced feelings of compassion in upper-class participants, those people showed just as much pro-social behaviour as lower-class participants. This suggests to the researchers that the rich aren’t as generous as the poor because they don’t typically feel as much compassion for others.

Piff and his colleagues argue that the poor may feel more compassion because they are more connected to those around them, psychologically and socially. They are more dependent on other people to get by, for instance, and previous research has found that, perhaps as a result of that dependency, they display more empathy and are more attuned to other people’s body language than the rich. On the flip side, as people attain higher status, their ability to take others’ perspectives is diminished.

Psychology Today reports that a study comparing low and high-income individuals revealed that "low income or low social class participants were more generous and believed they should give more of their annual income to charity (4.95 per cent vs. 2.95 per cent)." The study also suggested that the low income or low social class participants were "more likely to trust strangers and showed more helping behaviour towards someone in distress.”


Why do those who have less give more, relatively speaking? Part of the reason might be that they are more compassionate and more sensitive to the need of others. Psychologists refer to their way of thinking as a “contextualist tendency” marked by an external focus on what is going on in their environment and with other people.


On the other hand, those who have more tend to be self-centred with “solipsistic tendencies” that are concentrated on their own internal states, goals, motivations, and emotions.


The Psychology Today articles conclude, "There is no denying that wealth can provide comfort and security, and a lack of it can produce real hardships. But once our basic needs and even some comforts are met, psychologists suggest there might be greater value in experiencing compassion for others and acting on this impulse."

That the compassion manipulation eliminated class differences in prosocial behaviour suggests that upper- and lower-class individuals do not necessarily differ in their capacity for prosocial behaviour. Rather, those in lower socioeconomic classes may be higher in baseline levels of compassion than their upper-class counterparts — probably because they have seen more suffering. And it may be this differential that — unless moderated — drives class-based differences in prosociality.


Monday, May 11, 2020

What is the role played by information theory in biology?

What is the role played by information theory in biology? Is evolution driven by information? As it happens with physics, information is becoming more central to our understanding ecological complexity. A great review of ideas is here: v/@ricard_sole
Communication is an important feature of the living world that mainstream biology fails to adequately deal with. Applying two main disciplines can be contemplated to fill in this gap: semiotics and information theory. Semiotics is a philosophical discipline mainly concerned with meaning; applying it to life already originated in biosemiotics. Information theory is a mathematical discipline coming from engineering which has literal communication as purpose. Biosemiotics and information theory are thus concerned with distinct and complementary possible meanings of the word ‘communication’. Since literal communication needs to be secured so as to enable semantics being communicated, information theory is a necessary prerequisite to biosemiotics. Moreover, heredity is a purely literal communication process of capital importance fully relevant to literal communication, hence to information theory. A short introduction to discrete information theory is proposed, which is centred on the concept of redundancy and its use in order to make sequences resilient to errors. Information theory has been an extremely active and fruitful domain of researches and the motor of the tremendous progress of communication engineering in the last decades. Its possible connections with semantics and linguistics are briefly considered. Its applications to biology are suggested especially as regards error-correcting codes which are mandatory for securing the conservation of genomes. Biology needs information theory so biologists and communication engineers should closely collaborate.