## Friday, March 8, 2019

### ЁЭЧиЁЭШАЁЭЧ▓ЁЭЧ│ЁЭШВЁЭЧ╣ ЁЭЧЧЁЭЧ╢ЁЭЧ║ЁЭЧ▓ЁЭЧ╗ЁЭШАЁЭЧ╢ЁЭЧ╝ЁЭЧ╗ЁЭША in Civil Engineering

Measurement is one of the most important things in civil engineering and without measurements, we can not complete any construction. Here I have listed some basic measurements and conversion factors which are most commonly used in civil engineering. Hope it will help you in your work.

## BASIC QUANTITIES AND UNITS:

 Quantity Dimension SI Unit FPS Unit Mass M Kg Slug Length L M ft. Time T sec. sec. Force F Newton (N) Pound (lb)

## BASIC STANDARDS:

1 inch = 25.4 millimeters = 2.54cm.
1 meter = 39.37 inches =1.09 yards.
1 liter = 0.22 galls (imp.)
1 gallon (imp.) = 4.546 liters.
1 gallon (US) = 3.785 liters.
1 Kilogram (kg) = 2.2046 pounds (lb).

## METRIC UNIT OF WEIGHT/MASS:

1 tonne = 1000 kilograms = 1,000,000 grams.
1 quintal = 100 kilograms = 100,000 grams.
1 Slug = 14.606 kg
1 Slug = 32.2 lb

## MEASUREMENTS OF LENGTH:

1 foot = 12 inches.
1 yard = 3 feet.
1 furlong = 220 yards.
1 mile = 8 fulongs.
1 Kilometer (Km) = 1000 meters.
1 meter (m) = 100 centimeters (cm).
1 cm = 10 millimeter (mm).

## METRIC UNITS FOR LIQUID MEASUREMENTS:

1 liter = 1000ml.
1 liter = 1kg.
1 kiloliter (1000 liters) = 1 cubic meter/ 1 cu.m/ 1 m3.

## CONVERSION FACTORS:

1 cu. ft. = 28.317 liters.
1 cu. ft. = 0.028 cu. meters.
1 cu. ft. = 6.24 galls (imperial).
1 cu. ft. = 7.48 galls (US).
1 imp. gall = 1.20 galls (US), liquid.
1 imp. gall = 1.03 galls (US), dry.

## MEASUREMENTS OF AREA:

1 Acre = 43560 sq. ft
1 Acre = 4046.46 sq. m
1 Acre = 8 Kanals.
1 Kanal = 20 Marlas.
1 Marla = 225 sq. ft (* in some regions 272 sq. ft)
1 Marla = 15.50 sq.m

## MISCELLENIUS CONVERSION FACTORS:

1 cu.m = 35.32 cu.ft.
1 Pound = 4.448 Newton (Force).
1 klb = 4.448 kN.
1 Psi (lb/sq.in) = 6.689 Pascal (N/sq.m)
1 (lb/sq. ft) = 0.048 (kN/sq.m)