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Tuesday, January 31, 2017

Marriage of the Inner Divine Masculine & Feminine

Lorna Wilson
A new awakening is taking place, a resurfacing of ancient truths — an inner alchemy - a merging of the divine feminine and divine masculine that religious dogma has enshrouded for centuries. A divine union relationship—is a co-creative partnership of equality. To experience the Divine Union in all its power and beauty is to participate in the dance of creation. The child of cosmic birth is referred to in alchemy as the True Self, and it is created from a union known as the sacred marriage of dualities.
The One Living Light LogoIn the Greek alphabet, the letter Delta (triangle/triune) was the symbol for cosmic birth. The triangle can represent father/mother/child or the Perfect Union of the Two that creates the Third or the perfect union when two become one.
The union of masculine and feminine polarities is fundamental in the quantum physics of creation. The two polarities, the magnetic (female) and electric, (male) coming together to form a trinity. This geometry occurs when a planet is being born and when the first 2 cells of a human being form in the womb and the creation of Light. We need both the feminine and masculine in equal proportions for creation to occur and to keep all life in balance.
The lack of acknowledgment of the divinity of the feminine has created a state of imbalance that permeates all life. Feelings of inequality have set up boundaries between women and men. These imbalances and difficulties come about as a result of our internal beliefs and conditionings over eons of time. Our deeper higher self-knows a great re-awakening and shift is happening. For sacred union to occur—individually and globally—the illusion of separation has to be healed. We must dissolve duality and clear our energy channels of judgments. These judgments create disconnection from the feminine principles—from the body and emotions. We must reclaim the sacredness and spiritual union and embrace an alchemical relationship of co-creation.
Reclaiming the Feminine
Receptivity is a key quality of feminine energy. When we think of receptivity, it seems to imply that we are receiving something from outside of us. However, the feminine quality of receptivity is actually about deeply receiving our Self. The Divine Feminine energy is also about inner flow and allowance, trust and intuition. These qualities are feminine in nature. Our physical body is earth and form. The emotional energy current running through the body is water. It is about believing in our inner worth as “Beingness,” and not basing it on the masculine equivalent of “doingness.” It is about balancing stillness and action. It is joining in an authentic way with ourselves and others and becoming whole. And through our wholeness, meet our counterpart that is you fully reflected as your other.
The Divine Feminine energy brings about a new honoring of the female spirit. It is empowerment and reclaiming our divinity as women. It gives back to men a balance. By opening their energy field, men through surrender and embodying the feminine principle of receptivity, begin to honor their feminine aspects more than ever before. Men begin to observe the feminine aspect with greater awareness and appreciation. Regardless of gender, a healing balance of peace, harmony and interconnectedness love for all, never experienced before on the planet, is beginning to occur. When we can deeply receive our self, we experience our own subtle energies flowing through our body. This deep receptive state requires surrender, trust and total self-acceptance.
One key thing that makes the dance of union sacred is the love and acceptance of Self. We must have total acceptance of Self to surrender deeply and allow full freedom of expression to occur. Through loving and accepting our Self, we open the door to the ecstatic experience of our Self. This means total acceptance of the body, emotions, every aspect of our-self, and beyond that—acceptance of our divinity.
Emotional Body
The emotional body needs to be fully embraced. The feminine energy brings mastery of our emotions—a receptivity that allows us to feel the subtleties of our creative power. The emotional body, which has been suppressed and belittled, is the very thing we need for full mastery as conscious creators. We as men and women need to regain full connection with the emotional body. In so doing we experience the ecstatic bliss of sacred union to be fully experienced and expressed through the whole body.
By being so connected with our physical body and the tangible experience of it while simultaneously surrendering to the emotional body, we can allow the fluid energy of our emotions to flow freely through us. Having unconditional acceptance of our emotions, allows emotions to flow into balance in the Higher Heart—where transformation occurs, and we access our pure creative potential.
Surrender & Presence
To experience a sacred unified field with a partner, one must first experience an inner alchemy, connecting with the internal qualities of feminine and masculine energy within one's self. Two important factors for bringing this experience into the body are Surrender and Presence—core energetics that must be experienced equally. Surrender being feminine energy and Presence being masculine energy, the equilibrium between them creates the place of pure potentiality—non-duality, void, a unified quantum field ~~~ Divine Sacred Marriage or Union within the self. The state of being truly present brings us into the full sensory experience. Surrender prepares us to receive divine impulse. When these essential elements of an ecstatic and powerful union are in the balance, a portal opens, and we can really feel our energy flowing. There is a lightness of being, and we feel as if we are being held – like we are Receiving energy instead of expending it. We feel connected to our heart and our truth as we are suspended in the effortless union while we stand sovereign in his and her own power.

How to Study Less by Learning Things Once

 Nada El Garhy

You read over your notes. Then you read them over again. Then you read them over a third time. Then you take the test and are surprised at just how much you missed. Despite reading everything three times! A lot of study time is wasted because of one problem: you fail to learn things the first time around. Repeatedly going over the same information like putting a band-aid over a sieve. It may reduce the water that slips through, but it doesn’t solve the fundamental problem: that you have too many holes. The key to reducing the amount of time you study is simple: learn things the first time you see them, instead of after dozens of repetitions. This is all easier said than done. I’m sure if your mind was without holes you could easily capture any information that slipped into it. The real question is how can you do this? I don’t believe it is just a matter of being a genius or chance but based on how you study. 

Step One: Find the Holes

If you want to repair a leaky brain, you need to figure out where the holes are. Identify what type of information you have trouble remembering. Recognize when you’ve just gone over the information you don’t quite understand. Here are a few questions to ask yourself after every chunk of ideas to find your holes: 

What from this section am I most likely to forget? 
What concepts are completely new to me? (Rather than ones that feel familiar) 
Which ideas am I having the most difficulty grasping?

When you identify weak points, you can invest more time in fixing those instead of wasting time with a blanket studying technique of all information.

Step Two: Repair Weak Points

Memorizing?If you need to store arbitrary information, try using the link method. This is where you visualize an exaggerated image that combines the two things you want to associate. You can memorize formula’s this way by linking vivid pictures to the different symbols. A formula such as F = C/A, could become a scale with hundreds of (F)eathers on side and a giant (C)aterpillar sitting over millions of (A)nts. 
Conceptualizing?If you need to understand information try drawing a picture or diagram to combine the ideas. 

Retaining?If you need to retain a complicated mass of information try using metaphors and vivid examples to connect the abstract information into something you can easily relate to.

Repairing weak points in your understanding isn’t that difficult – if you first know where they are. Simply focusing on a piece of information can help you understand it. But if you don’t know which parts you’re missing, it is easy to skim over everything and not realize what you’ve missed. 

Step Three: Check Your Understanding

Do you “get” it. Does the information make sense to you at a deeper level, or does it seem arbitrary, meaningless or difficult to derive? Most school tests and virtually all real-life tests are designed to answer a single question: do you understand what you’re studying? 
If you aren’t sure, that’s when you need to start working deeper. Keep asking yourself “why” until you reach a point where the subject makes sense. Here are some tips for improving your understanding: 

Look for sensory descriptions.Your brain isn’t a computer. It’s designed to retain emotional, vivid and sensory information better than abstract or dry details. Link a sensation, picture or story to the abstract details. When learning how to do determinants (a form of math using matrices) I imagined my hands moving through the diagonals, one adding and one taking away. 
Get the background.A lot of information that seems meaningless makes more sense when given a context. If you stuck on trying to wrap your head around a particular point, do some research into it’s origins. This may take more time up-front but can save hours as future concepts are built upon it.

Step Four: Test Yourself

Whenever you’re experimenting with new learning methods, you need to measure the results. Check to see whether your new system is actually helping you remember more. Once you get familiar with a system, you can more accurately judge the extent of your knowledge. But until then, regularly test so you can tweak the system to fix errors. 
The best tests are objective ones. If you’re in school, look for past exams, tests or textbook questions to check your understanding. If you’re teaching yourself, come up with short exercises that can prove to you conclusively you know what you’re doing. 
The most important piece of advice I can give is this: treat study time as being sacred. Go in with the expectation that you will either learn everything through the first go, or you will identify areas that need further clarification. Focus and become aware of any potential holes so you can learn things once.

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Monday, January 30, 2017

Vishwakarma is the Lord of Architecture in Hinduism..

Lord Vishwakarma,Sculpture..

The Divine Draftsman

Vishwakarma is the presiding deity of all craftsmen and architects. Son of Brahma, he is the divine draftsman of the whole universe and the official builder of all the gods' palaces. Vishwakarma is also the designer of all the flying chariots of the gods, and all their weapons.
The Mahabharata describes him as "The lord of the arts, executor of a thousand handicrafts, the carpenter of the gods, the most eminent of artisans, the fashioner of all ornaments ... and a great and immortal god." He has four hands, wears a crown, loads of gold jewelry, and holds a water-pot, a book, a noose and craftsman's tools in his hands.
Vishwakarma Puja

Hindus widely regard Vishwakarma as the god of architecture and engineering, and September 16 or 17 every year is celebrated as Vishwakarma Puja — a resolution time for workers and craftsmen to increase productivity and gain divine inspiration for creating novel products. This ritual usually takes place within the factory premises or shop floor, and the otherwise mundane workshops come alive with a fiesta.
Vishwakarma Puja is also associated with the buoyant custom of flying kites. This occasion in a way also marks the start of the festive season that culminates in Diwali.
Vishwakarma's Architectural Wonders

Hindu mythology is full of Vishwakarma's many architectural wonders. Through the four 'yugas', he had built several towns and palaces for the gods. In "Satya-yuga", he built the Swarg Loke, or heaven, the abode of the gods and demigods where Lord Indra rules. Vishwakarma then built the 'Sone ki Lanka' in "Treta yuga", the city of Dwarka in "Dwapar yuga", and Hastinapur and Indraprastha in the "Kali yuga".
'Sone Ki Lanka' or Golden Lanka

According to Hindu mythology, 'Sone ki Lanka' or Golden Lanka was the place where the demon king Ravana dwelled in the "Treta yuga." As we read in the epic story Ramayana, this was also the place where Ravana kept Sita, Lord Ram's wife as a hostage.
There is also a story behind the construction of Golden Lanka. When Lord Shiva married Parvati, he asked Vishwakarma to build a beautiful palace for them to reside. Vishwakarma put up a palace made of gold! For the housewarming ceremony, Shiva invited the wise Ravana to perform the "Grihapravesh" ritual. After the sacred ceremony when Shiva asked Ravana to ask anything in return as "Dakshina", Ravana, overwhelmed with the beauty and grandeur of the palace, asked Shiva for the golden palace itself! Shiva was obliged to accede to Ravana's wish, and the Golden Lanka became Ravana's palace.

Among the many mythical towns Viswakarma built is Dwarka, the capital of Lord Krishna. During the time of the Mahabharata, Lord Krishna is said to have lived in Dwarka and made it his "Karma Bhoomi" or center of operation. That is why this place in northern India has become a well-known pilgrimage for the Hindus.

In the present "Kali Yuga", Vishwakarma is said to have built the town of Hastinapur, the capital of Kauravas and Pandavas, the warring families of the Mahabharata. After winning the battle of Kurukshetra, Lord Krishna installed Dharmaraj Yudhisthir as the ruler of Hastinapur.

Vishwakarma also built the town of Indraprastha for the Pandavas. The Mahabharata has it that King Dhritrashtra offered a piece of land called 'Khaandavprastha' to the Pandavas for living. Yudhishtir obeyed his uncle's order and went to live in Khaandavprastha with the Pandava brothers. Later, Lord Krishna invited Vishwakarma to build a capital for the Pandavas on this land, which he renamed 'Indraprastha'.
Legends tell us about the architectural marvel and beauty of Indraprastha. Floors of the palace were so well done that they had a reflection like that of water, and the pools and ponds inside the palace gave the illusion of a flat surface with no water in them.
After the palace was built, the Pandavas invited the Kauravas, and Duryodhan and his brothers went to visit Indraprastha. Not knowing the wonders of the palace, Duryodhan was flummoxed by the floors and the pools and fell into one of the ponds. The Pandava wife Draupadi, who witnessed this scene, had a good laugh! She retorted, hinting at Duryodhan's father (the blind king Dhritarashtra) "the son of a blind man is bound to be blind." This remark of Draupadi annoyed Duryodhan so much that later on, it became a major cause for the great war of Kurukshetra described in the Mahabharata and the Bhagavad Gita.

Sai Ram Sai Shyam Sai Bhagwan Shirdi ke Data Sabse Mahan - Sadhana Sarga...

Thursday, January 26, 2017

HOW GOA WAS CONVERTED. கோவா(சித்தாப்பூர்) எப்படி போர்த்துக்கேயரால் கத்தோலிக்க மயமாக்கப்பட்டது.

கோவா(சித்தாப்பூர்) எப்படி போர்த்துக்கேயரால் கத்தோலிக்க மயமாக்கப்பட்டது. இலங்கையில் இதுபோன்ற ஆராய்ச்சி நூல்கள் உள்ளனவா?

The Portugese Catholic Inquisition in Sindabur (Goa): 1550-1892. The Goa Inquisition was the office of the Inquisition acting in the Indian state of Goa and the rest of the Portuguese empire in Asia. It was established in 1560, briefly suppressed from 1774-1778, and finally abolished in 1812.
The Inquisition was established to punish relapsed New Christians – Jews and Muslims who converted to Catholicism, as well as their descendants – who were now suspected of practicing their ancestral religion in secret. In Goa, the Inquisition also turned its attention to Indian converts from Hinduism or Islam who were thought to have returned to their original ways. In addition, the Inquisition prosecuted non-converts who broke prohibitions against the observance of Hindu or Muslim rites or interfered with Portuguese attempts
to convert non-Christians to Catholicism.[2] While its ostensible aim was to preserve the Catholic faith, the Inquisition was used against Indian Catholics and Hindus as an instrument of social control, as well as a method of confiscating victims’ property and enriching the Inquisitors.[3]
Most of the Goa Inquisition’s records were destroyed after its abolition in 1812, and it is thus impossible to know the exact number of the Inquisition’s victims. Based on the records that survive, H. P. Salomon and I. S. D. Sassoon state that between the Inquisition’s beginning in 1561 and its temporary abolition in 1774, some 16,202 persons were brought to trial by the Inquisition. Of this number, it is known that 57 were sentenced to death and executed in person; another 64 were burned in effigy. Others were subjected to lesser punishments or penanced, but the fate of many of the Inquisition’s victims is unknown.
In Europe, the Goa Inquisition became notorious for its cruelty and use of torture, and the French philosopher Voltaire wrote “Goa is sadly famous for its inquisition, which is contrary to humanity as much as to commerce. The Portuguese monks deluded us into believing that the Indian populace was worshiping The Devil, while it is they who served him.”
The first inquisitors, Aleixo Dias Falcão and Francisco Marques, established themselves in the palace once occupied by Goa’s Islamic sultan, forcing the Portuguese viceroy to relocate to a smaller residence. The inquisitor’s first act was to forbid any open practice of the Hindu faith on pain of death. Sephardic Jews living in Goa, many of whom had fled the Iberian Peninsula to escape the excesses of the Spanish Inquisition to begin with, were also persecuted. The narrative of Da Fonseca describes the violence and brutality of the
inquisition. The records speak of the necessity for hundreds of prison cells to accommodate fresh victims. Seventy-one “autos da fe” were recorded. In the first few years alone, over 4000 people were arrested, with 121 people burnt alive at the stake.
At least from 1540 onwards, and in the island of Goa before that year, all the Hindu idols had been annihilated or had disappeared, all the temples had been destroyed and their sites and building material was in most cases utilized to erect new Christian Churches and chapels. Various viceregal and Church council decrees banished the Hindu priests from the Portuguese territories; the public practices of Hindu rites including marriage rites, were banned; the state took upon itself the task of bringing up Hindu orphan children; the Hindus were denied certain employments, while the Christians were preferred; it was ensured that the Hindus would not harass those who became Christians, and on the contrary, the Hindus were obliged to assemble periodically in Churches to listen to preaching or to the refutation of their religion.”
Christian historian: Dr. T. R. de Souza
“A particularly grave abuse was practiced in Goa in the form of ‘mass baptism’ and what went before it. The practice was begun by the Jesuits and was alter initiated by the Franciscans also. The Jesuits staged an annual mass baptism on the Feast of the Conversion of St. Paul (January 25), and in order to secure as many neophytes as possible, a few days before the ceremony the Jesuits would go through the streets of the Hindu quarter in pairs, accompanied by their Negro slaves, whom they would urge to seize the Hindus. When the blacks caught up a fugitive, they would smear his lips with a piece of beef, making him an ‘untouchable’ among his people. Conversion to Christianity was then his only option.”
The Goan inquisition is regarded by all contemporary portrayals as the most violent inquisition ever executed by the Portuguese Catholic Church. It lasted from 1560 to 1812. The inquisition was set as a tribunal, headed by a judge, sent to Goa from Portugal and was assisted by two judicial henchmen. The judge was answerable to no one except to Lisbon and handed down punishments as he saw fit. The Inquisition Laws filled 230 pages and the palace where the Inquisition was conducted was known as the Big House and the Inquisition proceedings were always conducted behind closed shutters and closed doors. The screams of agony of the culprits (men, women, and children) could be heard in the streets, in the stillness of the night, as they were brutally interrogated, flogged, and slowly dismembered in front of their relatives. Eyelids were sliced off and extremities were amputated carefully, a person could remain conscious even though the only thing that remained was his torso and a head. Diago de Boarda, a priest and his advisor Vicar General, Miguel Vazz had made a 41 point plan for torturing Hindus. Under this plan Viceroy Antano de Noronha issued in 1566, an order applicable to the entire area
under Portuguese rule :
“I hereby order that in any area owned by my master, the king, nobody should construct a Hindu temple and such temples already constructed should not be repaired without my permission. If this order is transgressed, such temples shall be, destroyed and the goods in them shall be used to meet expenses of holy deeds, as punishment of such transgression.”
In 1567 the campaign of destroying temples in Bardez met with success. At the end of it 300 Hindu temples were destroyed. Enacting laws, prohibition was laid from December 4, 1567 on rituals of Hindu marriages, sacred thread wearing and cremation. All the persons above 15 years of age were compelled to listen to Christian preaching, failing which they were punished.
A religious fatva was issued on the basis of the findings of Goa Inquiry Commission. It stated,”…Hereby we declare the decision that the conventions mentioned in the preamble of the fatva as stated below are permanently declared as useless, and therefore prohibited”.
Prohibitions Regarding Marriages
-The instruments for Hindu songs shall not be played.
-While giving dowry the relatives of the bride and groom must not be invited.
-At the time of marriage, betel leaf packages (pan) must not be distributed either publicly or in private
to the persons present.
-Flowers, or fried puris, betel nuts and leaves must not be sent to the heads of the houses of the bride or
-Gotraj ceremony of family God must not be performed.
-On the day prior to a wedding, rice must not be husked, spices must not be pounded, grains must not
be ground and other recipes for marriage feast must not be cooked.
-Pandals and festoons must not be used.
-Pithi should not be applied.
-The bride must not be accorded ceremonial welcome. The bride and groom must not -be made to sit under pandal to convey blessings and best wishes to them.
Prohibitions Regarding Fasts, Post-death Rituals
-The poor must not be fed or ceremonial meals must not be served for the peace of the souls of the dead.
-There should be no fasting on ekadashi day.
-Fasting can be done according to the Christian principles.
-No rituals should be performed on the twelfth day after death, on moonless and full moon dates.
-No fasting should be done during lunar eclipse.
-Hindu men should not wear dhoti either in public or in their houses. Women should not wear cholis .
-They should not plant Tulsi in their houses, compounds, gardens or any other place.
-Following the law of 1567, orphans were kidnapped for converting them to Christianity.
On September 22, 1570 an order was issued that :
-The Hindus embracing Christianity will be exempted from land taxes for a period of 15 years.
-Nobody shall bear Hindu names or surnames.
In 1583 Hindu temples at Esolna and Kankolim were destroyed through army action.
“The fathers of the Church forbade the Hindus under terrible penalties the use of their own sacred books, and prevented them from all exercise of their religion. They destroyed their temples, and so harassed and interfered with the people that they abandoned the city in large numbers, refusing to remain any longer in a place where they had no liberty, and were liable to imprisonment, torture and death if they worshipped after their own fashion the gods of their fathers.” wrote Sasetti, who was in India from 1578 to 1588.
An order was issued in June 1684 eliminating Konkani language and making it compulsory to speak Portuguese language. The law provided for dealing toughly with anyone using the local language. Following that law all the symbols of non-Christian sects were destroyed and the books written in local languages were burnt.
The Archbishop living on the banks of the Ethora had said during one of his lecture series, “The post of Inquiry Commission in Goa is regarded as holy.” The women who opposed the assistants of the commission were put behind the bars and were used by them to satisfy their animal instincts. Then they were burnt alive as opponents of the established tenets of the Catholic church.
The victims of such inhuman laws of the Inquiry Commission included a French traveller named Delone. He was an eye witness to the atrocities, cruelty and reign of terror unleashed by priests. He published a book in 1687 describing the lot of helpless victims. While he was in jail he had heard the cries of tortured people beaten with instruments having sharp teeth. All these details are noted in Delone’s book.
So harsh and notorious was the inquisition in Goa, that word of its brutality and horrors reached Lisbon but nothing was done to stop this notoriety and escalating barbarity and it continued for two hundred more years. No body knows the exact number of Goans subjected to these diabolical tortures, but perhaps it runs into hundreds of thousands, may be even more. The abominations of inquisitions continued until a brief respite was given in 1774 but four years later, the inquisition was introduced again and it continued un-interruptedly until 1812. At that point in time, in the year of 1812, the British put pressure on the Portuguese to put an end to the terror of Inquisition and the presence of British troops in Goa enforced the British desire. Also the Portuguese power at this time was declining and they could not fight the British
The palace of the Grand Inquisitor, the Big House, was demolished and no trace of it remains today, which might remind someone of inquisitions and the horrors inside this Big House that their great saint Francis Xavier had commenced.
Dr. Trasta Breganka Kunha, a Catholic citizen of Goa writes, “Inspite of all the mutilations and concealment of history, it remains an undoubted fact that religious conversion of Goans is due to methods of force adopted by the Portuguese to establish their rule. As a result of this violence the character of our people was destroyed. The propagation of Christian sect in Goa came about not by religious preaching but through the methods of violence and pressure. If any evidence is needed for this fact, we can obtain it through law books, orders and reports of the local rulers of that time and also from the most dependable documents of the Christian sect.
On the topic of “whitewashing history”, there is much to be learnt from the way no mention is made in our history book of the Portuguese Inquisition in Goa. Three hundred years, from the mid-1500s, were spent on torturing Hindus and Muslims selected by the Grand Inquisitor. The methods of torture were inhuman, and designed to inflict the maximal pain.

நயினாதீவின் கூட்டமைக்கப்பட்ட கப்பல் போக்குவரத்து கம்பனி

நயினாதீவிலிருந்து யாழ் பெருநிலப் பரப்புக்கு போவதானால் அன்றைய காலத்தில் கட்டுமரம், துடுப்புப் படகு, பாய்மரக்கப்பல் போன்றவற்றின் மூலம் ஊர்காவற்றுறை, காரைதீவு சென்று நடந்தோ வண்டியிலோ செல்வர். நடப்பவர் தலைச்சுமைகளை இறக்கி இளைப்பாறுவதற்கு வசதியாக சுமை தாங்கிக் கற்களும் தங்கு மண்டபங்களும் இடையில் இருக்கும் கல்லுண்டாய் வழுக்கி ஆற்றுப் பாலத்தருகில் அத்தகைய சுமைதாங்கிக் கற்கள் சமீப காலம் வரை இருந்தன.
இன்னொரு வழியில் செல்வதாயின் புங்குடுதீவு கரைக்கு சென்று லைடன் தீவுக்கு கடல் கடந்து அராலிப் பக்கமாகவோ பண்ணைப் பக்கமாகவோ யாழ் நகர் செல்வர். இவ்வழிகளால் யாழ்ப்பாணம் போய்த்திரும்ப பல நாட்கள் எடுத்தன. சுமைகளை பல இடங்களில் ஏற்றி இறக்குவதில் சிரமங்களும் இருந்தன.
மூன்றாவதாக யாழ்ப்பாணத்து பரங்கித்தெரு அருகில் அலுப்பாந்தித் துறைக்கு நேரடியாக கடல் மூலம் செல்லலாம். அவ்விடம் ஒரு சிறு நகரம் போல் எப்போதும் பரபரப்பாக இரவு பகலாக சன நடமாட்டத்துடன் காணப்படும். இலங்கைப் புகையிரத சேவையின் சரக்கு இரயிலும் நேரடியாக அவ்விடம் வந்து தரித்து நிற்பதற்கு வசதியாக ஒரு சிறு புகையிரத நிலையம் கொட்டகை வடிவில் இருந்தது. செட்டிமார்களின் ஸ்தாபனங்கள் பல இருந்தன. பிரிட்டிஷ் தனியார் வங்கிக் கிளைகளும்கூட இருந்தன. நயினாதீவு வணிகர்களான சபாபதிப்பிள்ளை போன்றோரின் கிட்டங்கிகளும் அங்கு இருந்தன.
இப்படி பல வசதிகளுடனும் இருந்த அலுப்பாந்திக்கு நயினாதீவிலிருந்து நேரடியாக செல்வதற்கு தோதாக ஒரு பெரிய படகை விடுவதற்கு தொலை நோக்குள்ள நயினைப் பெருமக்கள் சிலர் முனைந்தனர். 1931 வாக்கில் நயினாதீவு மற்றும் தீவக மக்களால் இதற்கென சங்கமொன்று அமைக்கப்பட்டது. காலக்கிரமத்தில் 'தீவுப் பகுதி மோட்டார் வள்ள ஐக்கிய சங்கம்' (The Islands Motor Boat Co-op. Society Ltd.) என்ற பெயரில் ஒரு சட்டபூர்வமான, வரையறுக்கப்பட்டகம்பெனி (Limitedd Liability Company) பதிவு செய்யப்பட்டு அதன் பங்குகள் விற்பனைக்கு விடப்பட்டன. ஊர்ப்பற்று கொண்ட பல பெருமக்கள் அந்த பங்குகளை வாங்கி உறுப்பினராக சேர்ந்தனர். திரு அமிர்தலிங்கம், திரு கந்தையா, திரு கனகரத்தினம், திரு செல்லப்பர் ஆகியோர் அதன் இயக்குநர்களாகவோ முதலீட்டாளராகவோ இருந்தோரில் சிலர். நயினை கிராம சபையும் அப்போதைய தலைவர்களாக இருந்த திருவாளர்கள் செல்லையா, நாகமணி, விசுவலிங்கம், அமிர்தலிங்கம்,ஆகியோரும் நிர்வாக ஒத்துழைப்பைக் கொடுத்து உதவினார். திரு கந்தையா அவர்கள் காலத்தில் நயினாதீவு புங்குடுதீவுக்கிடையில் ஐந்து சதம் ஆயச் சேவையும் நடாத்தப் பட்டது. கூட்டுறவுப் பரிசோதகராக(co-operative inspector) இருந்த மானிப்பாயைச் சேர்ந்த செல்வரட்ணம் குக்(Cook) என்பவர் இதற்கு பெரும் உதவி நல்கினார். இறுப்பிட்டி பசுபதிப்பிள்ளை விதானையாரும் பலத்த ஒத்துழைப்புக் கொடுத்தார்.
அன்றைய நாளிலேயே அதிக பெறுமதியுடைய (100,000ரூபாய் என்று கூறுவர்) கப்பலொன்று இங்கிலாந்து, கிளாஸ்கோ(Glasgow) நகரத்திலிருந்து வாங்கி கப்பலில் தருவிக்கப்பட்டது. கொழும்பு துறைமுகத்திலிருந்து புகையிரத்தின் மூலம் அலுப்பாந்திக்கு கொண்டு வரப்பட்டு ஒரு சுபயோக சுபதினத்தில் வெள்ளோட்டம் விடப்பட்டு சேவையில் ஈடுபடுத்தப்பட்டது. அதன் தண்டேலாக ஊர்காவற்றுறையைச் சேர்ந்த மனுவேற்பிள்ளை என்பவர் பணியாற்றினார். கப்பல், புயல் காற்று போன்றவற்றின் தாக்கத்திலிருந்து ஒதுக்காகவும் அதேநேரம் ஆழமாகவும் உள்ள புங்குடுதீவு புளியடித் துறையில் இரவு கட்டப்படும். காலையில் புறப்பட்டு நயினாதீவு, அனலைதீவு, எழுவைதீவு முதலிய இடங்களில் தரித்து ஊர்காவற்றுறையை சென்றடையும். அங்கு அரை மணி தங்கி யாழ்ப்பாணம் புறப்படும். ஊர்காவற்றுறையில் எம்மவர்களின் தேநீர்கடைகள் இருந்தன. நண்பகல் 12 மணிபோல் அலுப்பாந்தியை வந்தடையும். பின் அங்கிருந்து பிற்பகல் 1 மணிக்கு புறப்பட்டு எழுவைதீவு, அனலைதீவு, நயினாதீவு துறைமுகங்களில் தரித்து புளியடித் துறைமுகத்தில் கட்டப்படும். இவ்வகையில் தீவுகளுக்கிடையில் ஒரு பரஸ்பர புரிந்துணர்வையும் ஒத்துழைப்பையும் உருவாக்கிக் கொண்ட அதே நேரம் நயினாதீவு ஒரு தலைமைத்துவத்தை அங்கு இனம் காட்டிக்கொண்டது.
செல்வரத்தினம் குக் அவர்களின் சேவையை கௌரவிக்குமுகமாக அக்கப்பலுக்கு அவரின் பாரியாரின் பெயராகிய கார்மெல்(Carmel) என்பதைச் சேர்த்து கார்மெல் நாகபூஷணி இலக்கம்1 (Carmel Naagapooshani No.1) என்று பெயரிடப்பட்டது. நயினாதீவு - அலுப்பாந்தி - நயினாதீவு என மிகவும் சிறப்பான சேவையை அது எம் மக்களுக்கு நல்கியது. யாழ்ப்பாணப் பிரயாணம் இலகுவாக, வசதியாக, வேகமாக அமையவே பிரயாணிகள் தொகையும் பெருகலாயிற்று. ஒரு மோட்டார் வள்ளத்தை வைத்துக்கொண்டு சமாளிக்க முடியாத நிலையில் இன்னுமோர் மோட்டார் வள்ளம் பெறப்பட்டது. இத்தகைய வெற்றியின் பயனாக Carmel Naagapooshani No.2, Carmel Naagapooshani No.3, Carmel Naagapooshani No.4, Carmel Naagapooshani No.5 என்று புதிய கப்பல்கள் கொள்வனவு செய்யப்பட்டு சேவையில் ஈடுபடுத்தப்பட்டன. கார்மெல் நாகபூஷணி இலக்கம் 5 காலத்தில் பூபாலசிங்கம் என்பவர் தலைமையிலான குழுவினர் இயக்குனர் சபைக்கு தெரிவாகினர். அக்காலத்தில் பெரும் பணமோசடி ஏற்பட்டு கம்பனி திவாலாகியதாகத் தெரிகின்றது. கம்பனியில் பங்குகளை வாங்கி பணமுதலீடு செய்த நயினை நன்மக்கள் குறிப்பாக அரச சேவையாளர்கள் நட்டமடைந்தனர். இல்லாவிடின் சம காலத்திலெழுந்த கரம்பனைச் சேர்ந்த அல்பிரெட் தம்பையாவின் கார்கோ போட்(Cargo Boat Despatch Company) போல் வளர்ச்சியடைந்து, வேறு பல துறைகளிலும் கிளை பரப்பி, எம் மக்களின் பதிவு செய்யப்பட்ட கம்பனி வணிக திறமையை இலங்கை முழுவதும் வெளிக்காட்டியிருக்கும் என்பது திண்ணம்.

Tuesday, January 24, 2017

Dark energy emerges when energy conservation is violated

Cecile G. Tamura
The conservation of energy is one of physicists' most cherished principles, but its violation could resolve a major scientific mystery: why is the expansion of the universe accelerating? That is the eye-catching claim of a group of theorists in France and Mexico, who have worked out that dark energy can take the form of Albert Einstein's cosmological constant by effectively sucking energy out of the cosmos as it expands.
The cosmological constant is a mathematical term describing an anti-gravitational force that Einstein had inserted into his equations of general relativity in order to counteract the mutual attraction of matter within a static universe. It was then described by Einstein as his "biggest blunder", after it was discovered that the universe is in fact expanding. But then the constant returned to favour in the late 1990s following the discovery that the universe's expansion is accelerating.

For many physicists, the cosmological constant is a natural candidate to explain dark energy. Since it is a property of space–time itself, the constant could represent the energy generated by the virtual particles that quantum mechanics dictates continually flit into and out of existence. Unfortunately the theoretical value of this "vacuum energy" is up to a staggering 120 orders of magnitude larger than observations of the universe's expansion imply.
Running total
The latest work, carried out by Alejandro Perez and Thibaut Josset of Aix Marseille University together with Daniel Sudarsky of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, proposes that the cosmological constant is instead the running total of all the non-conserved energy in the history of the universe. The "constant" in fact would vary – increasing when energy flows out of the universe and decreasing when it returns. However, the constant would appear unchanging in our current (low-density) epoch because its rate of change would be proportional to the universe's mass density. In this scheme, vacuum energy does not contribute to the cosmological constant.
The researchers had to look beyond general relativity because, like Newtonian mechanics, it requires energy to be conserved. Strictly speaking, relativity requires the conservation of a multi-component "energy-momentum tensor". That conservation is manifest in the fact that, on very small scales, space–time is flat, even though Einstein's theory tells us that mass distorts the geometry of space–time.
In contrast, most attempts to devise a theory of quantum gravity require space–time to come in discrete grains at the smallest (Planck-length) scales. That graininess opens the door to energy non-conservation. Unfortunately, no fully formed quantum-gravity theory exists yet, and so the trio instead turned to a variant of general relativity known as unimodular gravity, which allows some violation of energy conservation. They found that when they constrained the amount of energy that can be lost from (or gained by) the universe to be consistent with the cosmological principle – on very large scales the process must be both homogeneous and isotropic – the unimodular equations generated a cosmological-constant-like entity.
Modified quantum mechanics
In the absence of a proper understanding of Planck-scale space–time graininess, the researchers were unable to calculate the exact size of the cosmological constant. Instead, they incorporated the unimodular equations into a couple of phenomenological models that exhibit energy non-conservation. One of these describes how matter might propagate in granular space–time, while the other modifies quantum mechanics to account for the disappearance of superposition states at macroscopic scales.
These models both contain two free parameters, which were adjusted to make the models consistent with null results from experiments that have looked for energy non-conservation in our local universe. Despite this severe constraint, the researchers found that the models generated a cosmological constant of the same order of magnitude as that observed. "We are saying that even though each individual violation of energy conservation is tiny, the accumulated effect of these violations over the very long history of the universe can lead to dark energy and accelerated expansion," Perez says.
In future, he says it might be possible to subject the new idea to more direct tests, such as observing supernovae very precisely to try to work out whether the universe's accelerating expansion is driven by a constant or varying force. The model could also be improved so that it captures dark-energy's evolution from just after the Big Bang – and then comparing the results with observations of the cosmic microwave background.
If the trio are ultimately proved right, it would not mean physicists having to throw their long-established conservation principles completely out of the window. A variation in the cosmological constant, Perez says, could point to a deeper, more abstract kind of conservation law. "Just as heat is energy stored in the chaotic motion of molecules, the cosmological constant would be 'energy' stored in the dynamics of atoms of space–time," he explains. "This energy would only appear to be lost if space–time is assumed to be smooth."
Fanciful yet viable
Other physicists are cautiously supportive of the new work. George Ellis of the University of Cape Town in South Africa describes the research as "no more fanciful than many other ideas being explored in theoretical physics at present". The fact that the models predict energy to be "effectively conserved on solar-system scales" – a crucial check, he says – makes the proposal "viable" in his view.
Lee Smolin of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Canada, meanwhile, praises the researchers for their "fresh new idea", which he describes as "speculative, but in the best way". He says that the proposal is "probably wrong", but that if it's right "it is revolutionary".…/ab…/10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.021102…/dark-energy-emerges-when-energy-c……/simple-explanation-mysterious-s……/news/mysterious-xray-signal.html

Onbathu Kolum | Vinayagar Songs | Juke Box | Full Songs

Laxman Temple,Sirpur,Chhattisgarh,India..

Relive history and let art steal your breath away as you visit one of India’s finest brick temples ever created, the magnificent Laxman temple. A remarkable product of unique Symmetry, precise construction and exquisite carvings, the Laxman temple is a portrayal of ageless art and devotion.

Explore Indian mythology as the beautiful Sheshnaag serving as an umbrella to Lord Vishnu catches your attention at the entrance. The ‘Panchrath’ type of a temple boasts of a Mandapa (shelter), Antral (passage) and the Garbha Griha (the main house). Exquisite carving work on pillars depicting religious segments like Vatayan, Chitya Gawaksha, Bharwahakgna, Aja, Kirtimukha and Kama Amalak breathe life into the exterior walls of the temple.  
The many incarnations of Lord Vishnu, Krishna leela ornamental symbols and erogenous pictures give the temple a uniquely sacrosanct appeal. It feels as if the walls, pillars, arches are telling stories of the Gods that hailed the rich land. Inside the main house, sits a beautifully crafted statue of Naagraj. Believed to be constructed by the mother of Mahashivgupt Balarjun Vasta, the Laxman temple was built in the memory of her husband Harshgupta in 650 A.D

நீங்க இப்படி இருக்க உங்க ராசி தான் காரணமா?

உள்ளுக்குள் மிருகத்தனமான கோபம் இருக்கும். பிடிக்காத நிகழ்வுகள், சம்பவங்கள் நடந்துக் கொண்டிருக்கும் போது இருக்கைக்கு முன்னால் இவர்கள் அமைதியாக இருப்பது போன்ற முகபாவம் கொண்டிருந்தாலும், உள்ளுக்குள் கோபக் கனலுடன் குமுறிக் கொண்டிருப்பார்கள்.
பிடிவாதம், பேராசை போன்றவை ரிஷப ராசிக்காரர்கள் மத்தியில் இருக்கும் பொதுவான கெட்ட குணாதிசயங்களாக கருதப்படுகிறது. ஒரு பொருள் அல்லது நபரின் மீது அதீத பற்றுக் கொள்வது மற்றவர்கள் உங்களை வேறு கண்ணோட்டத்தில் பார்க்க காரணியாக இருக்கிறது.
சூழ்நிலைக்கு ஏற்ப மாறிக் கொள்வது, ஆர்வத்திற்கு ஏற்பட மாறிக் கொண்டே இருப்பது. இது மற்றவர்களுடனான உங்களது உறவில் உணர்ச்சி ரீதியான பாதிப்பை ஏற்படுத்தும். இந்த குணாதிசயங்கள் உங்களை ஒரு தனித்து அல்லது சுயநலமாக ஈடுபடுபவர் போல எடுத்துக் காட்டும். இதை தவிர்க்கு, உங்கள் சூழலை மற்றவருடன் பகிர்ந்துக் கொள்வது நல்லது.
நுண்ணிய உணர்வு நிலை, அதாவது சட்டென்று இவர்களது உணர்ச்சி நிலை மாறி அதிகரித்துவிடும். மகிழ்ச்சி, கோபம், அழுகை என அது எதுவாக இருப்பினும், உடனடியாக அதிகப்படியாக வெளிப்படுத்திவிடுவர்கள். இது பல சமயங்களில் சிறுபிள்ளைத்தனமான செயலாக தான் மற்றவர்கள் உணர்வார்கள். எனவே, இதை மாற்றிக் கொள்ளுங்கள்.
நண்பர்கள் கூட்டத்தில் ஆதிக்கம் செலுத்த வேண்டும் என்ற எண்ணம், நான் தான் சிறந்து விளங்க வேண்டும் என்ற ஆசை போன்றவை ஓர்நாள் நண்பர் மத்தியிலான உறவை கெட்டுபோக வைத்துவிடும்.
தாழ்வு மனப்பான்மை தான் கன்னி ராசிக்காரர்களின் கெட்ட குணாதிசயம். இது இவர்களின் வளர்ச்சியை, உறவுகளை, உற்பத்தி திறனை வெகுவாக பாதிக்கும்.
தயக்கம், மற்றவர்கள் என்ன நினைப்பார்கள், இதை செய்யலாமா? வேண்டாமா? என மற்றவர் கருத்தின் பால் தயக்கம் கொள்வது துலாம் ராசிக்காரர்கள் தவிர்க்க வேண்டும்.
ரகசியமாகவே இருப்பது, அச்சுறுத்தும் வகையில் நடந்துக் கொள்வது, ஆக்ரோஷமாக செயல்படுவது போன்றவை விருச்சிகம் ராசிக்காரர்கள் தவிர்க்க வேண்டும். இது உங்களுக்கு நெருக்கமான உறவில் கூட விரிசல் விழ கருவியாகிவிடும்.
கலாச்சாரம், ஆன்மிகம், அமைதி என தனிமையில் இனிமை காணும் நபர்கள். இது இவர்களது பொதுவான குணாதிசயங்களில் ஒன்று. இதனால் இவர்களை சுற்றி இருக்கும் கூட்டம் மிக குறைவான எண்ணிக்கையில் இருக்கும். முடிந்த வரை மற்றவருடனும் சேர்ந்து வாழ்க்கையை இரம்மியமாக வாழ முயற்சிக்கலாம்.
தொழில், படிப்பு, வேலை என அனைத்திலும் போட்டி மனப்பான்மையுடன் வாழ்பவர்கள். லட்சிய பயணம் என்ற பெயரில் இவர்கள் தங்களை சுற்றி இருக்கும் நண்பர்கள், உறவினர்களை மறந்துவிடுவார்கள். கவனம் முழுக்க தொழில் மட்டுமே இருக்கும். வாழ்க்கையில் முழுமையான வெற்றி என்பது உறவுகளோடு சேர்ந்து வாழ்வது தான். இதில் சற்று கவனம் செலுத்த வேண்டியது நல்லது.
எதற்கும் அடிபணிந்து போகாமல் இருப்பது நல்லது தான். ஆனால், அனைத்து செயல்பாடுகளிலும் தனித்தே ஈடுபடுவது தவறு. நீங்கள் புத்திசாலி, திறமைசாலி எனிலும் கூட மற்றவர்களோடு சேர்ந்து ஈடுபடும் போது வெற்றியின் அளவு அதிகரிக்க வாய்ப்புள்ளது அல்லவா.
சுதந்திரமாக எதையும் யோசிக்க மாட்டார்கள், உறுதியற்ற மற்றும் சந்தர்ப்பவாத மனோபாவம் பேரழிவை உண்டாக்கும். மேலும் இது மற்ற நபர்கள் உங்களோடு ஒன்றிணைந்து செயல்படாமல் போக முக்கிய காரணியாக மாறிவிடும்.

காண கிடைக்காத அபூர்வ புகைப்படம்...

Sunday, January 22, 2017

Punching shear & Reinforcement ...

Punching shear is a type of failure of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to high localized forces. In flat slab structures this occurs at column support points. The failure is due to shear. This type of failure is catastrophic because no visible signs are shown prior to failure. Punching shear failure disasters have occurred several times in this past decade. An example of punching shear failure can be see in image.
Flat Slab Failure due to Punching shear
Flat Slab Failure due to Punching shear

Punching Shear in Flat Slabs

A typical flat plate punching shear failure is characterized by the slab failing at the intersection point of the column. This results in the column breaking through the portion of the surrounding slab. This type of failure is one of the most critical problems to consider when determining the thickness of flat plates at the column-slab intersection. Accurate prediction of punching shear strength is a major concern and absolutely necessary for engineers so they can design a safe structure.

General Mechanism of Failure

Conventional wisdom does not apply when considering the mechanism of a punching shear failure; in a slab system with a concentrated load or at a slab column connection, the loaded area is not actually pushed through the slab as shown in Fig. Punching shear failures arise from the formation of diagonal tension cracks around the loaded area, which result in a conical failure surface as illustrated in Fig.
Misconception of Punching Shear Failure
Misconception of Punching Shear Failure
Correct Representation of Punching Shear Failure
Correct Representation of Punching Shear Failure
Punching shear is a phenomenon in flat slabs caused by concentrated support reactions inducing a cone shaped perforation starting from the top surface of the slab. Although generally preceded by flexural failure, punching shear is a brittle failure mode and the risk of progressive collapse requires a higher safety class in structural design.

Punching Shear Design

The design to prevent punching shear failure proceeds as:
1. Check if the concrete is strong enough alone;
2. If not, check if the amount of reinforcement is reasonable;
3. Design reinforcement if reasonable, if not, change form of structure.

The weight of a slab supported on a column induces shear stresses in the slab. These stresses, if sufficient and where additional reinforcement is not provided, would result in the column ‘punching’ through the slab. This punching shear is similarly induced in the footing on which the column bears.
Although punching shear can be relieved by localised thickening of the concrete with downstand beams and enlarged column heads, the construction of flat slabs offers many advantages. A consistent head space can reduce the overall height of a building and provide significant time and material savings.

Ancon Shearfix
Used within a slab to provide additional reinforcement around columns, Ancon Shearfix is the ideal solution to the design and construction problems associated with punching shear.
Changing the form of structure includes deepening the slab, making the column larger, introducing drop panels or flared column heads. There is also the possibility to adapt foreign codes of practice which are more liberal! The reinforcement put in is usually vertical and traverses the potential failure line. Of course, we don’t know where the failure plane might be, so we must reinforce each possible failure plane.
Various punching failure zones
Various punching failure zones
Research has also been conducted in the past to develop an understanding of why punching shear occurs and how to prevent it. In recent years, the finite element method has been applied to analyze punching shear failure problems.  It can be used to develop an analytical model for the punching shear failure analysis of reinforced concrete plates. Furthermore, it has been discovered that punching shear can be prevented by increasing the depth of the concrete floor slabs, or by increasing the diameter of the columns supporting the floor.
Building Collapsed due to punching failure
Building Collapsed due to punching failure