Search This Blog

Sunday, January 24, 2016

Spina Bifida (Myelodysplasia) ::


Spina bifida (Myelodysplasia) is a birth defect that affects the lower back and, sometimes, the spinal cord. Spina bifida malformations fall into three categories: spina bifida occulta, spina bifida cystica with meningocele, and spina bifida cystica with myelomeningocele. The most common location of the malformations is the lumbar and sacral areas. Myelomeningocele is the most significant and common form, and this leads to disability in most affected individuals. The terms spina bifida and myelomeningocele are usually used interchangeably.
Classification
1. Spina bifida occulta
In this mildest form, there are usually no symptoms. Affected individuals have a small defect or gap in one or more of the vertebrae of the spine. A few have a dimple, hairy patch, dark spot or swelling over the affected area. The spinal cord and nerves usually are normal, and most affected individuals need no treatment.
2. Meningocele
In this rarest form, a cyst or fluid-filled sac pokes through the open part of the spine. The sac contains the membranes that protect the spinal cord, but not the spinal nerves. The cyst is removed by surgery, usually allowing for normal development.
3. Myelomeningocele
In this most severe form, the cyst holds both the membranes and nerve roots of the spinal cord and, often, the cord itself. Or there may be a fully exposed section of the spinal cord and nerves without a cyst. Affected babies are at high risk of infection until the back is closed surgically, although antibiotic treatment may offer temporary protection. In spite of surgery, affected babies have some degree of leg paralysis and bladder- and bowel-control problems. In general, the higher the cyst on the back, the more severe the paralysis.
Causes
- The causes of spina bifida are not completely understood.
- Scientists believe that both genetic and environmental factors act together to cause this and other NTDs.
- However, 95 percent of babies with spina bifida and other NTDs are born to parents with no family history of these disorders.