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Monday, August 24, 2015

Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) ::

Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is a term given to various heart conditions including a Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction) and Unstable Angina. These conditions are due to there being a reduced amount of blood flowing to a part of the heart. Various treatments are given and these usually depend on the type of ACS. Treatments help to ease the pain, improve the blood flow and to prevent any future complications.
Myocardial Infarction : 
If you have a myocardial infarction, a coronary artery or one of its smaller branches is suddenly blocked. The part of the heart muscle supplied by this artery loses its blood (and oxygen) supply. This part of the heart muscle is at risk of dying unless the blockage is quickly undone. (The word infarction means death of some tissue due to a blocked artery which stops blood from getting past.) In addition to being known as a heart attack, a myocardial infarction is sometimes called a coronary thrombosis.

Unstable angina :
Unstable angina occurs when the blood clot causes a reduced blood flow, but not a total blockage. This means that the heart muscle supplied by the affected artery does not die (infarct).
Acute coronary syndrome is most often a complication of plaque buildup in the arteries in your heart (coronary atherosclerosis) These plaques, made up of fatty deposits, cause the arteries to narrow and make it more difficult for blood to flow through them.
Eventually, this buildup means that your heart can't pump enough oxygen-rich blood to the rest of your body, causing chest pain (angina) or a heart attack. Most cases of acute coronary syndrome occur when the surface of the plaque buildup in your heart arteries ruptures and causes a blood clot to form. The combination of the plaque buildup and the blood clot dramatically limits the amount of blood flowing to your heart muscle. If the blood flow is severely limited, a heart attack will occur.
Various other uncommon conditions can also block a coronary artery. For example :
- Inflammation of the coronary arteries (rare).
- A stab wound to the heart.
- A blood clot forming elsewhere in the body (for example, in a heart chamber) and travelling to a coronary artery where it gets stuck.
- Taking cocaine, which can cause a coronary artery to go into spasm.
- Complications from heart surgery.
Sign & Symptoms
1. The most common symptom of a ACS is having severe Chest Pain. The pain often feels like a heavy pressure on your chest. The pain may also travel up into your jaw and down your left arm, or down both arms.
2. Nausea / Vomiting
3. Shortness of Breath (dyspnea)
4. Sudden, heavy sweating (diaphoresis)
5. Feel sick and feel faint
6. Abdominal Pain
7. Pain similar to heartburn
8. Clammy skin
9. Lightheadedness
10. Dizziness or fainting
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