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Monday, June 8, 2015

Menstrual Cycle ::


The menstrual cycle is the cycle of natural changes that occurs in the uterus and ovary as an essential part of making sexual reproduction possible. It is also known as Menstruation, Menses, Period. In humans, the length of a menstrual cycle varies greatly among women (ranging from 21 to 35 days), with 28 days designated as the average length. Each cycle can be divided into three phases based on events in the ovary (ovarian cycle) or in the uterus (uterine cycle).
The ovarian cycle consists of the follicular phase, ovulation, and luteal phase whereas the uterine cycle is divided into menstruation, proliferative phase, and secretory phase. Both cycles are controlled by the endocrine system and the normal hormonal changes that occur can be interfered with using hormonal contraception to prevent reproduction.
The menstrual cycle can be described by the ovarian or uterine cycle. The ovarian cycle describes changes that occur in the follicles of the ovary whereas the uterine cycle describes changes in the endometrial lining of the uterus. Both cycles can be divided into three phases. The ovarian cycle consists of the follicular phase, ovulation, and the luteal phase whereas the uterine cycle consists of menstruation, proliferative phase, and secretory phase.
The three phases of Menstrual cycle are :
1. Menstrual Period
✔ On Day 1 of your cycle, the thickened lining (endometrium) of the uterus begins to shed. You know this as menstrual bleeding from the vagina. A normal menstrual period can last 4 to 6 days.
✔ Most of your menstrual blood loss happens during the first 3 days.
✔ This is also when you might have cramping pain in your pelvis, legs, and back. Cramps can range from mild to severe. The cramping is your uterus contracting, helping the endometrium shed.
✔ In general, any premenstrual symptoms that you've felt before your period will go away during these first days of your cycle.
See More [ 2. Follicular Phase, 3. Luteal (premenstrual) Phase ]
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) ::
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) has a wide variety of symptoms, including mood swings, tender breasts, food cravings, crying, oversensitivity, fatigue, irritability and depression. It is also known as PMS or Premenstrual Tension (PMT) or Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). PMS symptoms occur 1 to 2 weeks before menstrual period (menstruation) starts. PMS can affect menstruating women of any age and the effect is different for each woman.
Causes
✿ Cyclic changes in hormones.
✿ Chemical changes in the brain.
✿ Depression (Feeling of sadness for periods of at least 2 weeks).
Sign & Symptoms
Symptoms vary from woman to woman. PMS often includes both physical and emotional symptoms, such as :
1. Acne
2. Swollen or tender breasts
3. Feeling tired
4. Trouble sleeping
5. Upset stomach, bloating, constipation, or diarrhea
6. Headache or backache
7. Appetite changes or food cravings
8. Joint or muscle pain
9. Trouble with concentration or memory
10. Tension, irritability, mood swings, or crying spells
11. Anxiety or depression
top 11 tips to maintain this prolem or hygiene during your periods
1. Choose your method of sanitation :
There are a number of ways including the use of sanitary napkins, tampons and menstrual cups to stay clean. So, try to use best, comfortable sanitary napkins, pads.

2. Change regularly :
If sanitary napkin is unchange then more chance to Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), vaginal infections and skin rashes. The standard time to change a sanitary pad is once every six hours, while for a tampon is once every two hours.

3. Wash yourself regularly :
When you menstruate, the blood tends to enter tiny spaces like the skin between your labia or crust around the opening of the vagina and you should always wash this excess blood away. This practice also tends to beat bad odour from the vaginal region.

4. Right washing technique :
Always wash or clean the area in a motion that is from the vagina to the anus. Never wash in the opposite direction. Washing in the opposite direction can cause Bacteria from the anus to lodge in the vagina and urethral opening, leading to infections.
5. Have a bath regularly :
Bathing not only cleanses your body but also gives you a chance to clean your private parts well. It also helps relieve menstrual cramps, backaches, helps improve your mood and makes you feel less bloated. To get some relief from backaches and menstrual cramps, just stand under a shower of warm water that is targeted towards your back or abdomen.

6. Discard your used sanitary product properly :
It is essential to discard your used napkins or tampons properly because they are capable of spreading infections, will smell very foul. Wrapping it well before discarding it ensures that the smell and infection is contained.

7. Reduce salt and caffeine :
Avoid processed and fast foods, with their high-salt composition, and you'll help hold water retention at bay and minimize bloating. Caffeine -- found in your daily ration of coffee, tea or soda -- can irritate the stomach by increasing gastrointestinal acidity, making your cramps worse and adding to the discomfort.

8. Get enough calcium :
Foods rich in calcium -- broccoli, yogurt, cabbage and milk -- will naturally fight muscle spasms and help you avoid cramps. Women need at least 1,200 mg of calcium daily, and choosing to get yours though leafy green veggies like kale and spinach has the added advantage of an extra dose of vitamins that can help lighten your flow.

9. Exercise :
Stretch those abdominal muscles with a gentle yoga workout. While you may not feel energetic enough for your normal fitness routine, increasing the blood flow to your pelvic region will give quick relief from cramps.

10. Use of Medicine :
Menstrual pain and cramps can be reduced by drug treatment with Ibuprofen, Aspirin or Naproxen. If you have a regular menstrual cycle, taking one of these pills one day before your period starts can often get rid of the normal discomfort.

11. Apply some Heat :
Stretch out and relax for a few minutes with a heating pad set on low resting on your abdomen. The heat will loosen tight muscles and ease cramping, while the quiet time lowers anxiety and allows you to recharge and feel less irritated and moody.

References
1. http://www.sheknows.com/health-and-wellness
2. http://www.thehealthsite.com/