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Sunday, September 21, 2014

Universe without expansion.





This new theory have constructed a “variable gravity universe” whose main characteristic is a time variation of the Planck mass or associated gravitational constant. The masses of atoms or electrons vary proportional to the Planck mass. This can replace the expansion of the universe. A simple model leads to a cosmology with a sequence of inflation, radiation domination, matter domination, dark energy domination which is consistent with present observations. The big bang appears to be free of singularities.

According to this new and untested theory the universe is not expanding, just It is gaining mass exponentially, so far in the past particles were lighter than nowadays.

But this interesting theory is untestable because we can't travel to the past to measure particles' mass.

However the recent Dark Matter new candidate: "quantum flavour-mixed particles", maybe will be a chance to test it without traveling to the past.

Dark matter (DM) constitutes about 80% of matter and 25% of the total energy density in the universe but its nature remains completely unknown. The existence of DM requires revision of the present day physics. Most likely, DM is a hypothetical particle or particles beyond the standard model.

But this new approach is related to the properties of Standard Model (SM) particles. According to this simulation SM particles may will have the property to have different flavours or masses. It remembers to the neutrino oscillations model that to is currently on tests all around the World. It postulates three different neutrino flavours (electron-neutrino, muon-neutrino and tau-neutrino) but we don't know what flavour is the heaviest and why, especially. If this neutrino property will extend to the rest of SM particles in each family, then SM will increase in a factor of three. Or if the quantum flavour-mixed particle will be between SM families, as neutrino is doing, then SM will be exactly the same and it is nowadays. To verify this last and more probable case, we will need to observe that flavour-mixed between in the leptons and quarks. But, this theoretical property was never observed in any test till the date. Therefore, it will be observed, then it will be plausible to test how the tiny quark mass oscillations will affect to the measure to the "expansion" of the universe. If this measurements will match to the current observation data about expansion and predicted by Hubble constant, then we could conclude that the universe is not expanding and it is an effect of variable gravity.

Abstract

We discuss a cosmological model where the universe shrinks rather than expands during the radiation and matter dominated periods. Instead, the Planck mass and all particle masses grow exponentially, with the size of atoms shrinking correspondingly. Only dimensionless ratios as the distance between galaxies divided by the atom radius are observable. Then the cosmological increase of this ratio can also be attributed to shrinking atoms. We present a simple model where the masses of particles arise from a scalar “cosmon” field, similar to the Higgs scalar. The potential of the cosmon is responsible for inflation and the present dark energy. Our model is compatible with all present observations. While the value of the cosmon field increases, the curvature scalar is almost constant during all cosmological epochs. Cosmology has no big bang singularity. There exist other, equivalent choices of field variables for which the universe shows the usual expansion or is static during the radiation or matter dominated epochs. For those “field coordinates“ the big bang is singular. Thus the big bang singularity turns out to be related to a singular choice of field coordinates.

http://arxiv.org/pdf/1303.6878v4.pdf